Sunday, January 16, 2022

Aunt Jennifer's Tiger; NCERT Solutions and Summary for Class 12

                       Aunt Jennifer's Tigers 
                                                      -Adrienne Rich
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"Aunt Jennifer's Tigers" by Adrienne Rich is a poem which describes the inner desire of the female section of the society to gain liberty from the clutches of an abusive society which is also patriarchal.

Stanza-1:(Aunt Jennifer's....chivalric certainty.)
In the 1st stanza,the poet is describing a lady whom she addresses as Aunt Jennifer.She says that Aunt Jennifer is doing embroidery on a screen.With her embroidery,she has designed beautiful tigers on the piece of screen she has got.These tigers are sprinting forward fearlessly in the forest with the green forest in the background.She has tried to describe their beauty by comparing them with a precious yellow stone called as Topaz.These tigers are said to be fearless beasts.However,here there is an irony.Although the tigers were not affected by the presence of humans,their creator was not like them.Aunt Jennifer was afraid of his husband.

Stanza-2(Aunt Jennifer's fingers....Aunt Jennifer Hand.)
In the 2nd stanza,the poet has described the fear of Aunt Jennifer towards her husband.She says while even doing embroidery,her fingers are quivering with the fear which is inspired by her husband.Her husband doesn't approve of her hobby of embroidery.Because of the abusive nature of her husband,she trembles every moment and it becomes difficult for her to glide her needle on the screen properly.Then,Aunt Jennifer describes her wedding ring given by her husband.The ring which could have easily become a material object to cherish forever has now been a piece of burden on her and her mental self.So many difficulties in her married life has now forced her to imagine the ring to be a heavy band.The wedding ring has become a bad omen for Aunt Jennifer in the form of bad experiences.

Stanza-3:(When aunt is dead....prancing,proud and unafraid.)
In the 3rd stanza,the poet says that one can easily sense aunt's intense will to get liberty which is also kind of reflected in her designs.The poet thinks that it is not possible for her aunt to achieve freedom in this lifetime.Even after death,her hands with the wedding ring on will remain as a proof how she was tortured and dominated by her husband.On the other hand,the tigers she embroidered will remain as an eternal depiction of her desire to live a fearless life.

Rhyme Scheme:
aa bb

Difficult Words:
i)Prance:Walk or move around with high springy                 steps.
ii)Topaz:A bright yellow coloured stone.
iii)Denizens:Animals who live in dens.
iv)Chivalric:An act of a gentleman.
v)Ordeals:Extremely severe tests or experiences.
vi)Fluttering:To move in quick,irregular motions                          as if being agitated.
About Author:
Adrienne Cecile Rich was an American poet and feminist.She has been widely credited with bringing "the oppression of women and lesbians to the forefront of poetic disclosure".Born on May 16,1929 in Baltimore,she is one of the trailblazers of the feminist movements across the world.

Literary Devices:
i)Anaphora:Use of same word in two                                          consecutive lines( they don't.....they                        pace in.)
ii)Metaphor:Use of topaz to describe the yellow                       colour of the tigers.
iii)Alliteration:'f' sound is repeated in finger                                  fluttering.

NCERT Questions:
A)Think it Out.
1)The word 'denizens' means that these beasts live in dens and are proud of their home.Tbey feel safe,in their house,there is also a sense of belonging attached to it.
The word 'chivalric' is used to show that they have a majestic and worthy position like knights.

2)Aunt Jennifer's hands were trembling because she is very much apprehensive of her husband who could come anytime and reprimand her for sitting idle and wasting her time on embroidery which is unnecessary. While Jennifer had always cherished doing embroidery,her husband thought it to be of no use and absurd.Due to all the difficulties in her life,she is burdened and finds it even difficult to even pull the needle.

3)"Massive weight of Uncle's wedding band" suggests that this marriage has become extremely bad for her because of her abusive husband.The bond which was supposed to be full of love and to be cherished forever have become a relationship which has only given her stress and burden.

4)In the 3rd stanza,she is terrified of her husband who has abused her a lot.

5)Because of her husband,Aunt Jennifer is surrounded by various ordeals.Some of these are:obeying her husband's orders,fear of men and giving in to his dominance and commands.In the poem,"Ringed" means an entrapment.As a ring encircles a finger,her husband has completely encircled her life with all sorts of difficulties which has not only trapped her body but also her soul.She has kept struggling for freedom and fearlessness.

6)Aunt Jennifer hobby was to do embroidery.Aunt Jennifer's intense desire for freedom and fearlessness from her partner came out through her creativity.The probable reason for Aunt's embroidering animals different from her character is that she is not actually what she is portrayed as.Her circumstances have made her like a timid cat but she also has an intense will to live life with respect and pride.

7)There are various symbols in the poem:
'Denizens of a world of green' refers to inhabitants of the forest.
'Massive Weight of Uncle's Wedding band' refers to all the burdens she has been lifting because of her marital obligations.
'Sits heavily upon Aunt' means has laid stress upon her.
'Ringed with ordeals' means to get entrapped in hardships and sufferings.

8)Yes,I symphatize with Aunt Jennifer.The speaker is also sympathetic towards her and by tones,it is evident she despises dominating men.

No part of this publication may be reproduced,stored in a retrieval system of transmitted,in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical,photocopying,recording or otherwise without the prior permission of the publisher.

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Saturday, January 15, 2022

The Rattrap;NCERT Solutions and Summary for Class 12

                                The Rattrap
                                                -Selma LagerlΓΆf
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"The Rattrap" by Selma LagerlΓΆf is a story of a rattrap seller who leads a very poverty-stricken life.His earnings were meagre too.As a consequence of all this,he had to resort to robbing and begging to make both ends meet.

He is all alone in this enormous world and leads a miserable life.As a result of his loneliness,he starts to knit various kinds of thoughts.One of the thoughts he had was thinking this world to be a big rattrap.He was of the opinion that the world offers us with various kinds of greeds in the form of comforts and luxuries of life.These comforts are however detrimental as getting trapped in these worldly indulgence,we eventually land up ourselves in various miseries.

As the peddler was homeless,he had to wander for shelter everyday.His life was difficult.One evening,he came across a crofter whom he requested for shelter for the night.As was his means of make his living,he robbed the crofter.The next morning,the crofter was very much in dismay and upset as the peddler had stolen his hard-earned money.To keep him ahead of the crofter,the peddler decided to chose the path to flee through the forest which was dense and deserted.However,the peddler was trapped in the forest itself.Sometime later,he was able to find his way and again takes shelter at a forge.

The ironmaster at the forge mistakes the shelter-seeking peddler as his old friend and invites him to his house.The poor peddler however rejects his offers because of the fear of getting caught.

However,he is soon invited by the ironmasters daughter.The next morning he is somehow stopped by the ironmaster's daughter again for Christmas Eve.By then,the ironmatser and his daughter had already realised that the person they had given shelter was actually a peddler and not his friend Captain Stalhe.

The next day after Christmas,the ironmaster and the daughter went to the church to offer their prayers.At the church,they discover that the peddler whom they had given shelter was actually the robber who had robbed the hard working crofter of his money.The ironmaster and his daughter started to fret about what all things,the thief would have stolen by then.They repented by giving shelter to a thief.

However,at this junction of time comes an amazing twist in the story.Instead of stealing,the peddler had actually gifted the ironmaster's daughter a gift in the form of a rattrap.The daughter found a letter of thanks and the stolen money inside the trap.The peddler by the means of the letter thanked Edla for her kindness and requests her to return the stolen money.

The given story presents us a with a very important lesson that goodness in a human being can never be reduced to nothingness.It can be awakened at any time with our own good deeds.Goodness around is can definitely induce a change in our lives.
Difficult Words:
i)Odd Moments:A short span of leisure time.
iii)Plods:Walks heavily.
iv)Bait:Food placed to a hook to trap a prey.
vii)Snare:To trap.
viii)Mjolis:A game played with playing cards.
ix)Crofter:A person who works on a rented form.
x)Creamery:A factory which produces cheese                           and cream.
xi)Kronor:Currency of Sweden.
xiii)Thickets:A dense group of bushes.
xiv)Thumping:The sound of some heavy                                         objects thumping.
xv)Forge:A shop where metal is being heated                      and made into structures.
xvi)Scow:A flat-bottomed boat used for                                transporting cargo to and from ships in                  harbour.
xvii)Sifted:Descended lightly or sparsely as if                          sprinkled from a sieve.
xviii)Rolling Mill:Machine to roll metal into                                         sheets.
xix)Anvil:A heavy iron block with a flat top and 
               concave sides.
xx)Bellows:Air bag that emits a stream of air                            used for blowing.
xxiv)Whipped:(Here)To hit something.
xxvi)Ragamuffin:A person in rags.
xxvii)Deigned:Do something that one considers                           to be beneath one's dignity.
xxviii)Undeceive:To tell someone that his belief                                  is mistaken.

About Author:
Selma Ottilia Lovisa LagerlΓΆf was a Swedish author and popular teacher.Born on 20th November,1858 in Marbacka,Spain;she is the first women to receive the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1909.She passed away in 1940.

NCERT Questions:
A)Understanding the Text.
1)The peddler was actually a rattrap seller.As he was poor and had no shelter to rest under,he had resorted to robbery to make both ends meet.He had to wander to seek shelter at someone's place or the other.

Once he had to take shelter at a crofter's place.The crofter showed kindness towards the peddler by sharing his porridge and tobacco.However,the peddler betrayed him by robbing him of his hard earned money.After fleeing away,he had to again take shelter at some place.This time it was a forge and the ironmaster mistook him for his old mate Captain Von Stalhe.With utmost warmth,he welcomed him and let him stay at their residence.The peddler also didn't bother to clear the air of confusion as this would help him get some money.On the other hand,the daughter of the Ironmaster Edla Williamson was an exceptional host.She convinced her father to let her stay even after it was found that the peddler was not Captain Von Stalhe.

All these acts of kindness were interpreted differently by the peddler.He thinks that the kindness and generosity by Edla was completely selfless and also reformed him forever.For this transformation,the peddler also reciprocated by gifting her with a rattrap along with the crofter's money which he had earlier robbed.

2)In the above story,there are many notable examples of how the characters of the daughter and ironmaster were poles apart.They were totally different.

The ironmaster was a proud one.When he saw the peddler for the initial time,he mistook him for his old acquaintance Captain Von Stalhe.He was an old regimental comrade.He tried to provide him shelter in order to create a good impression in the Captain's mind.However,soon when it was revealed that the person he was hosting was not actually the Captain but a mere peddler,he called him dishonest.He even threatened him to leave him at the mercy of the village sheriff.

On the other hand,Edla,the ironmaster's daughter was a kind lady.After even the revealation that the peddler was not the person they supposed him to be,she convinced her father that the petty peddler meant no harm.She treated him with all the due respect he deserved which also proved to be instrumental in the transformation of the peddler.

3)The story has certainly various instances of unexpected reactions from the characters to other's behaviour.For instance,one evening when the peddler seeked shelter at the door of a little hut,he was rather accepted by the crofter rather than declining his request.Another such noted instance is that when the peddler was found that he was not actually Captain Von Stalhe.The owner of the forge,the ironmaster,was livid at this revealation.He called him dishonest as he thought him to be taking advantage of his mistaken identity but her Edla convinced his father to not to punish him by any means.Moreover,she let the peddler to live in their house till Christmas Eve.

4)The peddler by the end of the story had completely changed for the good.The kindness which came unexpected in his way from Edla Williamson reformed him forever.Her generosity was so huge that it killed the robber inside the peddler.He,who had resorted to robbery for his survival,now mended his ways.The peddler gifted her a rattrap along with three ten kronor notes which had been stolen from the crofter.He requested her to return the money to the crofter.Along with all this,he also a heartwarming letter to her for treating him well like a real Captain.

5)The world is full of various things which are tempting for humans.These include material pleasures,luxuries,joy,lust etc.The rattrap seller thinks that these things are like a bait which is planted to trap someone in the rattrap of the world.In the story,the peddler attracted by the three ten kronors of the crofter which he eventually stole from him.Later on,he found himself that he is now trapped by the forest while walking through the woods.He is of the opinion that this was a punishment for him for the sin he committed.

6)The peddler has a good sense of humour.All during the whole story,his sense of humour is quite notable.When his original identity is revealed,he made the ironmaster laugh with his metaphor of the world.His interactions with the other characters in the story also throws light on the subtle sense of humour.This not only lightens the seriousness of the story but also makes the readers emphatise with him.

B)Talking about the Text.
1)The peddler's way of describing himself as an underprivileged rattrap seller and how the world treats him helps him win the reader's sympathy.The sympathy is well justified considering the underdog narrative he created around him.

2)The story has 3 characters who suffer from loneliness.The characters are the rattrap seller,old crofter and the ironmaster suffer from loneliness.Had the peddler got company from the initial stage,he would have definitely not resorted to robbery and other vices.

3)A very notable story is about Hari Singh who is a character in the story 'A Thief's Story' by Ruskin Bond.Here,after his owner knew that Hari Singh had stolen his money,he didn't hand over him to the authorities.This reformed him forever to become a good person.

4)There are several instances such as mistaking the peddler for a Captain,the complete change in the attitude of the ironmaster when it was revealed that he is not a peddler.There is also a philosophical angle to it where the peddler thinks the world to be a rattrap.

No part of this publication may be reproduced,stored in a retrieval system of transmitted,in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical,photocopying,recording or otherwise without the prior permission of the publisher.

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Tuesday, January 4, 2022

A Thing of Beauty;NCERT Solutions and Summary for Class 12

                         A Thing of Beauty
                                                  -John Keats
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"A Thing of Beauty" by John Keats is a romantic poem.It is primarily based on Greek mythology about a shepherd named Endymion and his quest for his love Diana.However,during his quest he falls in with an Earthly maiden,who later turned out to be Diana.

Stanza-1:(A Thing of beauty....and quiet         breathing.)
In the above lines,the poet says that beauty is perennial and stays forever.Beauty never fades away and on the contrary it increases with every passing moment of time.It flourishes more than ever with every passing day and grows along time.For the poet,beauty is like a beautiful shady tree under whose shade all creatures can sleep peacefully and experience a life full of prosperity and good health.

Stanza-2:(Therefore,on every morrow...from our dark spirits.)
According to the poet,he thinks that everyday,it is beauty which fills us with the spirit to live life with zeal.Beauty has one of the sole reasons which gives to strength to live through sad moments and with several cruel people around us.Had there been no beauty,the Earth would be full of cruel and fake people.There would moments full of sadness and gloom.Keats is of the opinion that beauty is being created by God in order to remove sadness from our hearts.So,beauty becomes one of the reasons why humanity has still managed to flourish even with the rise of vices.

Stanza-3:(Such the moon....mid forest brake)
In the 3rd stanza,the poet describes the beautiful things which are present in Earth.These are the Sun,Moon,trees,flowers such as Daffodils and the rivers.The poet says that all these things are kind of a blessing bestowed upon all the creatures by Mother Earth so life can be beautiful.He futher goes on to describe how each of them add beauty to our lives.The trees provide us shade,flowers with beauty,rivers with their cool and clear water during hot summers.All of these are the beauties of nature which are like a favourite boon for all of us.

Stanza-4:(Rich with a....heaven's brink)
The poet further carries on with the description of the more beautiful things which are present on Earth.He gives various examples of what he thinks is/are beautiful.Some of these are the beautiful musk roses which have a great fragrance,the tales of warriors who laid their lives for their countries or humanity.He again repeats his point how these beautiful things are the gifts of God for all of us.They are like a nectar given by God to us and these beauties are immortal.These small yet beautiful things are one of the prime reasons why we can be happy despite having innumerable sorrows in our lives.

Difficult Words:
i)Bower:A shady place under the tree.
ii)Morrow:The following day.
iii)Wreathing:Surround or to encircle.
vi)Boon:A blessing.
vii)Rills:A small stream.
viii)Brake:A process of slowing down.
ix)Grandeur:High rank or socially important.

Rhyme Scheme:
aa bb cc dd

Literary Devices:
i)Metaphor:"Bower Quiet"- Calmness of the bower is compared to the calming effect of a beautiful thing.
ii)Anaphora:"Of noble nature—Of all the    unhealthy"
iii)Inversion:Normal order of words is reversed.
"Are we wreathing a flowery band."
iv)Antithesis:Opposite words placed together.
"Old and young"
v)Imagery:"Bushes full of musk roses."

About Author:
John Keats was born in London in the year 1795 and died in Rome in 1821 at the young age of 25 because of his illness.He is one of the most famous romantic poets ever.His poems are still considered as to be the benchmark of what is considered as absolute beauty.

NCERT Questions:
A)Think it Out.

1)There are various beautiful things mentioned in the poem.These include the Sun,Moon,shady trees, beautiful daffodil flowers,streams of clear water,dense green bushes of forest ferns where fragrant musk roses grow.The poet is also of the opinion that the tales of heroic men who sacrifice their lives are also very beautiful.

2)Along with the beautiful things,the poet has also made an attempt to list the things which cause suffering and pain.Some of these are the desire to offend others,hopelessness,lack of noble men,bad health,unhappiness,gloom and darkness.

3)The poet is a lover of beauty.By the means of his senses,he discovers beauty and establishes the fact that man is linked to nature eternally.The poet thinks that these things of beauty are like wreaths of beautiful flowers.With all the beautiful and enchanting things surrounding us,we seem to weave a flowery band everyday.All these keeps us attached to the beauties of the Earth.

4)Life can be challenging at various junctions of time.There are many situations which become so troublesome that they dampen our spirits.However,some form beauty or another brings love and cheerfulness in our lives in spite of everything against us.A thing of beauty has the ability to remove the pall of sadness and makes us fall in love with life again.

5)The "mighty dead" were very powerful and dominating persons during their own times.Their achievements made them 'mighty' and great.Their noble works are still praiseworthy.We imagine that such mighty dead forefathers will certainly attain grandeur on the doomsday.Hence,the poet has associated 'grandeur' with the 'mighty dead'.

6)Things of beauty make us feel happy by coming in contact with them.These things leave a lasting impression on us.And Keats makes it absolutely certain by his own statement-"A Thing of Beauty is a Joy Forever".Its beauty never diminshes or declines with the passage of time.Its loveliness goes on increasing with every moment.And being perrenial,it removes the pall of sadness that covers our spirits.

7)The poem uses a very enchanting image to describe the beautiful bounty of the Earth.The poet has referred to the endless fountain of immortal drink.According to the poet,it is constantly poured into our hearts blissfully from heaven.This is the reason why the poet calls the 'beautiful bounty of the Earth' as 'an endless fountain of immortal drink'.

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A Roadside Stand; NCERT Solutions and Summary for Class 12

                            A Roadside Stand                                                        - Robert Frost Text: ...