Thursday, September 30, 2021

His First Flight;NCERT Solutions and Summary for Class 10

                             His First Flight
                                        -Liam O' Flaherty
Text:
Image Courtesy:NCERT;Ncert Books by Supercop
Please tap on the image once to get a more sharper and legible copy of the book.

Summary:
"His First Flight" is a story by Liam O' Flaherty revolving around a bird's fear for flying.The author narrates this story that how a little bird's dilemma of flying.

The young seagull was the lone occupant of the ledge.His siblings had already flown away the day before and he had been afraid to fly with them.The vast expanse of the sea had made all the fear in him go live.He could n't muster up the courage to take that step.It appeared to him as a desperate plunge.

The seagull's parents called him and upbraided him for his cowardice and even threatened him to leave him on the ledge alone.In fact,there came a time when his older brother caught a fish and the whole family cheered for him.

Slowly,the Sun was ascending the horizon and he saw his family.He saw that his siblings were dozing off,his father preening his wings and his mother toring the small scraps of fish.The sight of the food excited him.He started making noises to bring him some food.

Her mother picked up a piece of fish in her beak and started flying towards the seagull.He was becoming more eager every moment for getting the food.But,his mother actually played a trick on him.

Just when she was very near to the ledge,she stopped and her wings completely motionless.He waited for a moment but the food maddened him and he dived for it.However,he remembered his fear for flying again and let out8 a loud scream.The next moment his wings flew open and he could feel his wings cutting the air.

His entire family cheered around him and he was flying all around.He was flying over the green sea now and his family had already landed on that expanse of sea.

He has successfully made his first flight.The story gives us an important life lesson.There are many things which could be beneficial for us but we don't go for it fearing the consequences.But, actually turning our faces away from the prevailing situation can damage us more.

Difficult Words:
1)Ledge:A narrow horizontal surface projecting                   from a wall, cliff, or other surface.
2)Brink:The extreme edge of land before a steep                slope or a body or water.
3)Plunge:Jump or dive quickly and energetically.
4)Skim:To move quickly just above a surface                     without touching it.
5)Herring:A fairly small silvery fish which is                           most abundant in coastal waters.
6)Cackle:Laugh in a loud, harsh way.
7)Cliff:A steep rock face, especially at the edge               of the sea.
8)Preening:(of a bird)Tidy and clean its feathers                      with its beak.
9)Hump:A rounded raised mass of earth or land.
10)Derisively:In a manner expressing contempt                           or ridicule.
11)Headlong:With the head foremost.
12)Curveting:Leap gracefully or energetically.
13)Shrieking:High-pitched piercing cries or                                  sounds.
14)Cawed:To utter a caw.
15)Dog-fish:a small sand-coloured bottom-                               dwelling shark with a long tail,                                 common on European coasts.
About Author:
Liam O’Flaherty, (born August 28, 1896, Inishmore, Aran Islands, County Galway, Ireland—died September 7, 1984, Dublin), Irish novelist and short-story writer whose works combine brutal naturalism, psychological analysis, poetry, and biting satire with an abiding respect for the courage and persistence of the Irish people. He was considered to be a leading figure of the Irish Renaissance.

NCERT Questions:
A)Thinking about the Text.

1)The young seagull was afraid to fly because he couldn't muster up courage to take the flight.He thought his wings were weak and the vast expanse of sea was also adding to his fears.

There is always some amount of fear and hesitation in doing a work in doing a work or an action for a first time.Some people are timid and learn slowly whereas others are fast in learning things.

I think it is equally challenging for a human baby to take his first step.He always has this apprehension in mind that he might fall.

2)"The sight of the maddened him" suggests how hungry the bird was.For almost 2 days,he had n't anything and this was completely messing him up both mentally and physically.When his sight fell on the scrap of fish in his mother's beak,he was very excited and started making bird noises.
We think that this was a temptation which made take the dive.

3)The seagull's parents were quite concerned for him.They were doing them everything from upbraiding to cajoling him to make him fly.It was an instinctive avian trait to fly and he will not be able to do so,a lot of problems would arise for him.As he was a bird,all his movements would be governed by the fact that if he would be able to fly or not.

4)This story presents us with a very important message which can prove to be game-changer for you.There are many moments in our lives when fear overpowers us.But,we must remain resilient during those times. We need to move forward and must not let fear take the steering wheel of our life. One needs to gain confidence and overcome fear in order to succeed in one' efforts if he has no wrongdoings.


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Tuesday, September 21, 2021

The Thief's Story;NCERT Solutions and Summary for Class 10

                           The Thief's Story
                                        -Ruskin Bond
Text:
Image Courtesy:NCERT;Ncert Books by Supercop
Please tap on the image once to get a more sharper and legible copy of the book.

Summary:
"The Thief's Story" by Ruskin Bond is a small tale which certainly explains how trust is very important in every relationship one keeps.The story is narrated by a thief who tells how he robbed his master but returned to him because for the first time he felt guilty.

Hari Singh was a teenager.Though he was just 15,he was very experienced in robbing people.He approached Anil while he was watching a wrestling match.Anil was tall and lean and looked easy-going and simple from Hari Singh's eyes.

He tried flattering him.Anil asked him his name and he told he was Hari Singh.However,it was a fake name as he changed his name every month in order to keep himself ahead of his  previous employers and police.

After a bit of conversation,Hari Singh told Anil that he wanted to work for him.Anil told him that he cannot pay him.This made Hari Singh a bit disappointed but again he asked that if Anil could feed him.Anil asked if he could cook and to this Hari Singh replied in affirmation.Anil said that if he can cook,he can feed him.

That night,Anil took Hari Singh to his quaters over the Jumna Sweet Shop and told him that he could sleep on the balcony.The meal Hari Singh cooked that night however was terrible as Anil gave it to a stray dog.Anil told him to be just off but later on patted him on his head and told him that he will teach him how to cook.He also taught him to write his own name and even promised to teach him to write full sentences also.All this was slowly opening new horizons for Hari Singh.He soon realised that once he could write whole sentences,he can achieve limitless success.

His working experience with Anil was quite pleasant too.He would make tea in the morning and then buy the supplies for the day.He would make a rupee from buying these supplies.

He then described that Anil made money by fits and starts.He would borrow one week and lend the next.He made a living by writing for magazines.This seemed a queer way to make money to Hari Singh.

One evening,Hari Singh came home with a bundle of notes.He told Hari Singh that he just sold a book to a publisher.Hari Singh saw him tuck the money under the mattress.

Hari Singh convinced himself that he is not paid by Anil and most probably he will waste the money on his friends.He was certain that he would have to rob Anil.

Anil was fast asleep and Hari Singh made a plan to rob and get away from him.He considered that if he could take the money and run away,he could catch a train to Lucknow.He slipped out of his blanket and crept upto the bed.

His hand slid under the mattress and he drew them out stealthily.At this point,Anil turned in his sleep towards Hari Singh.He was startled and was quickly crawled out of the room.

When he was on the road,he began to run.He slowed down to a walk and counted the money.It was 600 rupees.He dashed to the station and directly went to the platform.

The train was just moving out and he could have easily caught it.But,something held him back and he could not board the train.He hesitated and lost the chance to get away.

As he was standing on the platform alone,he realised something very deep.From his experience as a thief,he knew that Anil would feel very sad after discovering the theft.And the sadness would be because Hari Singh had played with his trust.

He went back to the bazaar and sat down in the shelter of the clock tower.He felt for the notes and they were damp.His thoughts again went back to Anil.He thought how could n't cook his meals,run to the bazaar or learn to write whole sentences anymore.

A very significant realisation dawned upon him that learning full sentences could bring him more money one day than stealing.He was almost compelled to return back to Anil.

He hurried back to the room feeling very nervous.He quietly opened the door and crept into the head of the bed.As he found the edge of the mattress and slipped the notes back into their original place.

Next morning,Anil had already made the tea and gave him a fifty-rupee note.He said that he had made some money yesterday and Hari Singh would be paid regularly now.

Hari Singh found the note was still damp.Hari Singh now knew that Anil had found about the theft but he kept quiet.

Hari Singh smiled in his most appealing way and this time the smile came by itself.

Difficult Words:
1)Flattery: Excessive and Insincere praise.
2)Well-Oiled:(Here)Healthy.
3)Grunting:Make a low inarticulate sound.
4)Misjudged:Form a wrong opinion or conclusion                            about something.
5)Patted:Touch quickly and gently with the flat of                    the hand.
6)Appealing:Attractive and interesting.
7)Fits & Starts:Irregularly.
8)Unlined:(Here)Wrinkle and Scar free.
9)Oil-Rich Arab:(Here)Very rich.
10)Maidan:Field meant to play on.

About Author:
Ruskin Bond(19 May 1934----)is an Indian author of British descent. His first novel, The Room on the Roof, received the John Llewellyn Rhys Prize in 1957. He was awarded the Sahitya Akademi Award in 1992 for Our Trees Still Grow in Dehra, his novel in English.

NCERT Questions:
A)Think About It.

1)Hari Singh's attitude towards education is quite applaudable as he is well-aware of the benefits of education instead of being a theif.His views on education does n't change as we progress in the text.

Hari Singh returns to Anil in order not to destroy the trust Anil had vested in him.He knew Anil would become sad when he would realise that Hari Singh was a fraud.All this would make Hari Singh look bad in Anil's eyes.

2)Although Anil knew that Hari Singh had robbed his money,he didn't hand him over to the cops.This was because Anil didn't want to spill the beans and make Hari Singh guilty when he had actually returned which is very rare.Anil was also aware that if Hari Singh was sent to prison,he would never be able to leave his practice of robbery.

Most people,however,wouldn't have done so.Anil is way different from others as he wishes to reform Hari Singh by forgiving or educating him.

B)Talk About It.

1)Yes,there are many people in our society who are like Anil and Hari Singh.These characters are not too good to be real because there are many people in our society who still aspire to reform others or respect other's trust in them.

2)Yes,we do think that there have been many significant details in the story which states that Anil is a struggling writer.Hari Singh has mentioned how Anil made money by fits and starts.And,sometimes he borrowed and sometimes he lent also explains his behaviour.

3)Yes,there are many Hari Singhs around us.They are thieves but not by choice but by circumstances.

We can definitely visualize that harsh conditions must have forced Hari Singh to become a thief.He must have found no solace from anyone and would had to choose this path,even if he knew it was not the right one.

4)I think the story is set in the Nothern plains of India considering the fact that there are mentions of Lucknow and Jumna in the text.

Mostly,Hindi is spoken in those places with a regional dialect in the speech.No,we don't think English is spoken in those parts of India.

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Friday, September 17, 2021

Speech Writing for Class 11

A public speech means the act of speaking and interacting with a live audience directly.It is delivered by a speaker for a particular purpose.

Speech writing,on the other hand,is a completely different domain where you write a speech which you or someone else will deliver later.

A speech usually contains 3 primary parts.Let's see the format.These are:

FORMAT:

i)Introduction:
The introduction includes 3 parts.
Greet your audience.Ensure that everything is formal.
Introduce yourself.Tell the audience or the panel your name.You are advised to speak your name in the format "I am .... " rather than "Myself ...." as the former one is more likely to be considered correct.
Introduce your theme or topic.Make the audience aware what is your topic.Add the template lines:
"I am grateful to have been given this golden opportunity to express my views on the topic 
......... ."

Please keep in mind that you have to keep this part of the speech concise.

ii)Body:
This includes all the things you wish to present before the audience as a speaker.Here,as it is a speech,make sure your views are not given much significance.

At first,explain your topic.Make the audience feel that your theme holds some importance and they can relate to it.

After this,present the facts and data about the topic.Also make sure you throw light on the advantages and disadvantages of the things you are talking about it.Mention the solutions to the problems,if any.Ask some questions in between and put some relevant examples in the middle.

This part of the speech is bigger than the other two.Make sure you put your brains into work in this section!

iii)Conclusion:
In this section,make sure you include your advice or your opinions.But don't make it too lengthy.Make sure you end within 3 sentences at maximum.

Also,make sure you thank your panel of listeners for listening to you patiently.A template sentence can be:
"Thank you!You have been an amazing audience for listening to me."


Some points to remember:
1)While attempting a question based on speech writing,make sure you start writing it from a new page altogether.This way you can present ten whole writing in one page.

2)Note down the question on the top of the page.

3)Speeches are usually written in present tense.Make sure you follow that and make necessary changes wherever needed.

4)Make sure your speech can interact with the audience and give them some clarity on this subject matter.

5)Systematic organization of the ideas and the overall script can certainly make the speech feel a bit more polished.

6)A speech needs to be coherent and present only a specific kind of point of view.

Example:
Image Courtesy:Jagran Josh
This example is an answer of one of the toppers of Class 12 board exams.

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Thursday, September 16, 2021

Letter Writing for Class 11

Letter Writing is an important skill which everyone should definitely consider to hone.Even after your studies,you can be benefited by writing some letters for correspondence.Letters are still one of the most important forms of communication in spite of the wide usage of 
E-mails.Letters are still the best form of communication for official correspondence.

In 11th Class,only Formal letters are in the syllabus.Let's discuss them and learn it.

For 1st Term,only Business or Official Letters(Making enquiries, registering complaints, asking for or giving information, placing orders and sending replies.) will be coming in the English examination.


Instructions to write a Formal Letter properly:

1)Read the question carefully to understand it properly.Make sure you understand the context of the letter.

2)Jot down the key points on the basis of which you will be needing to establish the content of the letter.Ensure that the body of the letter is in sync with the theme of the letter.

3)Ensure that the letter is coherent.That means that it should begin and end in a smooth and polished manner.That will help you bag you a few more marks.

4)Avoid elaborating a single point for too long.Be brief and precise.

5)Make sure you don't exceed the word limit drastically.For 11th students,the word limit ranges from 120-150 words.

6)Be polite and formal at all times.Strictly avoid using colloquial language.

Formal Letter's elements:

πŸ›‘Sender's Address:
Make sure that the sender's address is clear and precise. Specify the house number first, followed by the street, town,state and pin code.This helps the reader to identify the address of the sender and helps in further correspondence.

πŸ›‘Date:
Here,the date on which the letter is written is mentioned.Make sure you write the format in the given below format:
e.g. 17th September,2021

πŸ›‘Receiver's Address:
The date is followed by the receiver's address which contains the receiver's name,designation and address.Although it is optional to write the full address,make sure you write the most comprehensive address.

πŸ›‘Subject:
One of the most important parts of a letter is the subject.One must ensure that the subject expresses the main theme of the letter clearly.

πŸ›‘Salutation:
The salutation used in formal letters is a greeting to the person to whom the letter
is addressed.You can add "Respected" before "Sir" or "Madam" directly to make it more polished.

πŸ›‘Body of Letter:
The body of the letter is arguably the most important part which contains all the information,the writer (you) wants to convey. For this, start with introducing the purpose of writing. Then,build up the topic to develop the interest of the reader by stating the causes, effects and solutions to the problem being discussed.

πŸ“Œi)Introduction-
This part of the body states the purpose of writing.It presents your intention of writing the letter.

πŸ“Œii)Informative Paragraph-
This part of the body gives details of the problem, cause, effect, possible solution.This also contains what the receiver can do for you and or how he can attend to your query.

πŸ“Œiii)Concluding Paragraph-
This part of the body states your hope and comment and how you will be thankful to the receiver if he grants what you want.

πŸ›‘Complimentary Close:
This is a courteous and decent way of ending the letter. For this,we write "Yours sincerely";"Yours faithfully" and "Yours truly". The first letter of the second word is never written starting with a capital letter.

πŸ›‘Sender:
Just below the complimentary close,sender's name is written as a mark of signing off.If applicable,the sender's designation may be added.

These are some of the vital elements you need to keep in mind.

Business and Official Letters:
All those letters which are needed to be written while doing certain business or carrying out a  formal work.

These includes letter of enquiry asking for certain information,placing or cancelling orders,letter of complaint,letters making request, sending acknowledgements.

FORMAT:

Sender's Address
---------------------------------
---------------------------------

Date
-------------------

Receiver's Designation,
Receiver's Address
-----------------------------------
-----------------------------------

Subject of Letter
----------------------------------------------------------------------------

Salutation
-----------

Body of the Letter
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Complimentary Close and Signature
-------------------
-------------------

Let us discuss some examples of letter writing.These examples gives you some basic insights as to how to write a letter smoothly.
1)


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Monday, September 6, 2021

A Tiger in the Zoo;NCERT Solutions and Summary for Class 10

                          A Tiger in the Zoo
                                          -Leslie Norris
Text:
Image Courtesy:NCERT;Ncert Books by Supercop
Please tap on the image once to get a more sharper and legible copy of the book.

Summary:
This poem revolves around the contrasts between a tiger in a jungle and a tiger in a cage.It describes how even animals long for freedom and liberty.

Stanza-1:
In the above lines,the poet describes a tiger in the zoo living in a cage.He quietly roams around his tiny cage as compared to his habitat in the jungle.The last line shows he is quiet but he is definitely angry.

Stanza-2:
In this stanza,the poet describes a tiger in the jungle living freely.Sliding through long grass,he is waiting for his prey.He is hiding near the pool of water where deers usually come to quench their thirst.

Stanza-3:
Again in the above lines,the poet has described a tiger in a jungle.He has asserted how the tiger would have been snarling at houses at the corner of the jungle.His claws and sharp canines symbolise his strength and physical acumen.
With his roar,he would have been terrorising the village.

Stanza-4:
Here,the poet comes back to the tiger in a cage.
Here,the tiger is locked behind the bars.He just cannot move and keeps moving around the length of the cage.He is so sad and frustrated to be confined that he ignores the visitors coming to see him.

Stanza-5:
In these lines,the poet describes the tiger in the cage.The tiger can do nothing as he is behind the bars.He keeps remembering his days in the jungle and remains sad.During the night,the last sound he can hear is the sound of the patrolling cars.He becomes nostalgic and keeps staring at the brilliant stars.

Difficult Words:
1)Stalks:(Here)Move around quietly.
2)Rage:Anger.
3)Plump:A fat and stout organism.
4)Snarling:Making an angry sound.
5)Fangs:A large sharp tooth, especially a canine                 tooth of a dog or wolf.
6)Brilliant:Bright.

Poetic Devices:
1)Enjabment:Line 2 and 5 have no punctuation                           marks in 3rd line.
2)Alliteration:Use of 'h' in "he hears".
3)Assonance:Use of vowel sound 'i' i.e. "in his                              vivid strips" and "with his brilliant".
4)Oxymoron:"Quiet Rage".
5)Personification:The tiger is referred to as 'he'.
6)Consonance:Use of 's' sound i.e. 'stalks','his'                                and 'stripes'.
7)Metaphor:Tiger's paws are compared to                                  velvet.(Pads of Velvet)

Rhyme Scheme:
abcb

NCERT Questions:
A)Thinking about the Poem.

1)i)CAGE:
He stalks in his vivid strips.
The few steps of his cage.
His strength behind bars.
Stalking the length of his cage.
Ignoring visitors.
He hears the last voice at night.

JUNGLE:
He should be lurking in shadow.
Sliding through long grass.
He should be snarling around houses.
Terrorising the village!

ii)CAGE:
Rage
Cell
Bars
Visitors
Patrolling
JUNGLE:
Lurking
Grass
Deer
Terrorising
Snarling

2)i)This refers to the tiger's padded paws living in forced luxury.His steps are quiet as they are confined to the limited steps he can take in the cage.Here,the 'anger' and 'ferocity' of the tiger is suppressed as he is in a limited space and he can terrorize no village.The quietness is somewhat symbolic of suppressed natural traits.

ii)And even at night,the tiger is not at rest.He is completely aware of his surroundings and becomes restless everytime he thinks about his freedom being curtailed.The 'brilliant' means luminous in above lines.And he keeps wondering if he will ever be able to go back to the jungle.

The repetition helps the poet bring about a more beautiful touch in the poem.This repetition also helps the poem memorize better.

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Saturday, September 4, 2021

MCQs for Dust of Snow and Fire and Ice for Class 10

      MCQs for Dust of Snow and Fire and Ice
According to latest examination pattern for CBSE 10th and 12th grade students,MCQs have become a vital assessment tool for the students to assess their performance.Here,we provide you with the MCQs of A Letter to God.

You can also take an online Multiple Choice Questions test by clicking on the button below.The test can only be taken once and is to be completed within 15 minutes.Take the test to evaluate your preparation: button


1)Antonym of 'Rued' is

Held in Regret
Happy 
Wasted
Delighted

Correct Answer:Delighted
Reason:
'Rued' means held in regret.Hence,its antonym is delighted.

2)What uplifted his mood?

Falling of snow on his shoulders
The Crow
Hemlock tree
All of the above

Correct Answer:Falling of snow on his shoulders
Reason:
The poet was sad and quite unhappy for some unknown reason.However,his mood was uplifted by this simple gesture.

3)Hemlock tree has 

Blue Flowers
White Flowers
Large Flowers
Both 'a' and 'b' 

Correct Option:White Flowers

4)What does "Dust of Snow" represent?

Healing power of nature
Particles of Snow
Cool Weather
None of the above

Correct Option:Healing power of nature 

5)What is the rhyme scheme of the poem "Dust of Snow" ?

baba cdcd
abba cdcd
abab cdcd
abab cddc

Correct Option:abab cdcd

6)What is the poetic device used in the line "Has given my heart"?

Alliteration
Irony
Metaphor
Similie

Correct Option:Alliteration

7)Why does the poet call it "Dust of Snow"?

Snow particles were too tiny
They came over him like dust
They felt like dust
They looked like dust

Correct Option:Snow particles were too tiny

8)In what mood was the poet earlier?

Happy
Pleasant
Good
Sad

Correct Option:Sad

9)The poem "Dust of Snow" is set in which season?

Summer
Winter
Autumn
Spring

Correct Option:Winter

10)What did the falling of the snow saved for the poet?

Some part of the day he had wasted 
His mood
His body and health
His wealth and property

Correct Option:Some part of the day he had                                    wasted

11)Who is the poet of the poem "Fire and Ice"?

Leslie Norris
Paula McGlynn
Carolyn Wells
Robert Frost

Correct Option:Robert Frost

12)Who hold with those "those who favour fire"?

The poet
Robert Frost
John Keats
Robin Paul

Correct Option:The poet
Reason:
In such questions,the answer the poet would be a more appropriate answer.Therefore,make sure you go for the correct one.

13)What is the meaning of 'Perish'?

Bloom
Die
Rise
Glow

Correct Option:Die

14)What would be a better option to end the Earth twice?

Snow
Ice 
Both 'a' and 'b'
None of these

Correct Option:Ice

15)What is the poetic device used in the line "I hold with those who favour fire."

Assonance
Alliteration
Oxymoron
Both 'a' and 'b'

Correct Option:Both 'a' and 'b'

16)What is the rhyme scheme of the poem?

abaa bcbcb
aaba bcbcb
aaab cbcbc
abab bcbac

Correct Option:abaa bcbcb

17)Where has the poet used the literary device 'personification'?

Fire
Ice
Earth
Both 'a' and 'b'

Correct Option:Both 'a' and 'b'

18)The "ICE" symbolises ________ in the poem.

Indifference and Hatred
Snow
Fury
Avarice

Correct Option:Indifference and Hatred

19)What is the antonym of "sufficient"?

Enough
Reasonable
Inadequate
Sufficient

Correct Option:Inadequate

20)The "FIRE" symbolises _______ in the poem.

Hatred
Rigidity
Insensitivity
Lust

Correct Option:Lust

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Long Walk to Freedom;NCERT Solutions and Summary for Class 10

                     Long Walk to Freedom
                                    -Nelson Rolihlala Mandela
Text:
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Please tap on the image once to get a more sharper and legible copy of the book.

Summary:
"Long Walk to Freedom" by Nelson Mandela is a small extract from his autobiography.In this chapter,he described his experience during the installation of South Africa's first democratic government and what made him work hard and struggle to achieve freedom for the coloured people of Africa.

The date 10th of May in 1994 was very clear in his mind and will be forever etched in his mind.
The day was bright and clear.For the past few days,he was surrounded by global leaders who had come to pay their respects and regards before the inauguration ceremony.The inauguration was quite special for South Africa as a nation as it was the largeat gathering of international leaders on South African soil.

The inauguration ceremony was organised to take place in the Sandstone Amphitheatre.This was a victory for the people of South Africa in true terms.Because once it used to be a seat of White supremacy whereas now it was the site for the establishment of South Africa's first democratic and non-racial government.

On that day,he was accompanied by his daughter Zenani.On the podium,Mr.de Klerk was first sworn in as second deputy President.Then,Thabo Mbeki was sworn in as first deputy President.When it was Mandela's turn to take oath as President,he pledged to obey and uphold the constitution and devote himself to the well being of the people.He describes this installation to be a common victory for justice and peace along with freedom.

After a few moments,a chevron of South African Impala jets flew above them leaving a trail of black,red,green,blue and golden colours which were actually on the new South African flag.This  not only symbolised the pin-pointed precision of the military force but also the loyalty of military to the democracy.

On that,he was overwhelmed remembering his and his nation's past.He thought how the white-skinned people of South Africa patched up their differences and erected a system of racial domination over the dark-skinned peoe of their own land.The structure they ended up creating was one of the most inhumane societies,the world had ever witnessed.

He sadly recounted his past in his mind thinking about how a few years ago,a man from his community could not fulfill the responsibilities he/she has towards his/her community and society.Any person from his community who tried to live as a human being was punished and isolated.He was inevitably ripped off from his family to live without dignity in life.

He described how he had no ide ato join the freedom struggle or anything.As a boy,he was free to roam around,play in the fields and not troubled by anyone.However,as he grew up,he realised that his boyhood freedom was only an illusion.As a young man,he had no liberty or rights to live a normal or lawful life.

Then,as he saw more of the society he was living in,he found that freedom of everyone who looked like him was curtailed.He,therefore,joined the African National Congress for bring a revolutionary change and make apartheid unlawful.He explained how this intense desire for the freedom of the people to live their lives with dignity and self-respect which transformed his life.This quest for bringing freedom to his community has made all the difference.

Difficult Words:
1)Apartheid:A political system that separates                           people according to their race.
2)Besieged by:(Here)To be surrounded closely                              by.
3)Amphitheatre:A building without a roof,with                                  many rows of seats rising in                                    steps.
4)Confer:(Here)Give.
5)Emancipation:Freedom from restriction.
6)Bondage:Slavery.
7)Array:An arrangement of troops.
8)Bedecked:Decorate.
9)Chevron:A pattern in the shape of a V.
10)Anglo-Boer:A situation or person related to                                Britishers and Boers.
11)Grimmest:Bad and hopeless.
12)Obligations:Responsibilities.
13)Secrecy:The action of keeping something                            secret or the state of being kept                              secret.
14)Rebellion:The action or process of resisting                           authority, control, or convention.

About Author:
Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela(18th July,1918-5th December,2013)was a South African 
anti-apartheid revolutionary, statesman and philanthropist who served as President of South Africa from 1994 to 1999.He was the country's first black head of state and the first elected in a fully representative democratic election.

NCERT Questions:
A)Thinking about the Text.

1)A huge number of global leaders came to attend the sworn-in ceremony of the African leaders because after a long time, South Africa had become independent from Apartheid.It signified the triumph of equality over racism.

2)Mandela by this statement means that he also has the same ideals as other African patriots that is to make South Africa a nation upholding the ideals such as equality and democracy.This statement also signifies that all the sacrifices the other freedom fighters had made had finally bore fruit.

3)We completely agree that the "depths of oppression" create "heights of character".Mandela illustrates this by quoting the names of his late comrades in the struggle against apartheid.This can be compared to the situation of our country during the freedom struggle which saw the advent of many great global personalities.

4)Mandela's perspective started changing about freedom as when he grew up.Mandela had no specific zeal to be free but as he grew up and went to different places,his outlook went under a complete makeover and the definition of freedom changed ffor Nelson Mandela.

5)The quest for freedom and liberty from apartheid and live life in a respectful manner completely changed his life.He was transformed into a bold man from a timid and frightened man he was earlier.He had to live anonymously on his own land.He had to sacrifice his family.But,this intense desire to gain independence for his community made him so determined that he finally took it.

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Friday, September 3, 2021

The Tale of Melon City;NCERT Solutions and Summary for Class 11

                      The Tale of Melon City
                                              -Vikram Seth
Text:
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Summary:
"The Tale of Melon City" is a poem extracted from the book "Mappings" and is included in the "Collected Poems" by Vikram Seth.The poem describes about a king who carries his notion of justice a bit too far.

The poem begins with a description about the king who ordered an arch to be built.When he rode down thta arch,it hit his head and his crown fell down.It was because it was built too low.

The king thought it was dishonourable and thus commanded the chief of builders to be hanged.The chief of builders put the blame on the workmen who in turn,blamed the bricks.Teh king ordered the execution of the architect.The architect blames the king for the wrongly constructed arch.

The king's mind compelled him to form a counsel which would let him decide who is the real culprit.The king behaved like a fool at this moment and asserted that the nation wants a hanging and someone must be hanged immediately.

A noose was set up and each man was measured.But only one man fitted it and he was the King.The ministers heaved a sigh of relief upon finding someone to execute.According to old customs,anyone who would be passing the City Gate next would choose the king.The person was actually an idiot and used to  answer melons to ever question he was asked.So,when he was asked the same,he told that a 'Melon' would be sworn-in as the next King.The melon was given the throne and tne city lived happily ever after.

The message of the poem is quite unique.One may follow principles duely but should never go far in that path eventually leading to harmful circumstances.

Difficult Words:
1)Arch:A curved symmetrical structure                              spanning an opening.
2)Triumphally:Celebrating or commemorating a                           victory.
3)Thoroughfare:A main road in a town.
4)Edify:Instruct or improve someone morally.
5)Gallows:A structure used for the hanging of                        criminals.
6)Ordain:Order something officially.
7)Counsel:A formal advice.
8)Quavering:Shake or tremble during speaking.
9)Scaffold:A raised wooden platform.
10)Mused:Say to oneself in a thoughtful manner.
11)Noose:A loop with a running knot used to                          hang somebody.
12)Heralds:An official employed to oversee                              state ceremonial messages.
13)Reverently:With deep and solemn respect.
14)Laissez Faire:The policy of leaving things to                                  take their own course.

About Author:
Vikram Seth is an Indian novelist notable in this sphere.He is known for his books which are simple yet touching.He was born on 20th June,1952 at Kolkata of West Bengal.He has been presented with many prestigious awards such as Padma Shri,Sahitya Akademi Award as well as Pravasi Bharatiya Samman.

NCERT Questions:
A)Reading with Insight.

1)"TheTale of Melon City" runs like a folk tale.Once a fair and just king ruled over a state.He got an arch built across the thoroughfare.As he was passing below the low arch,it struck his head and he lost his crown.He thought that it was a disgrace and ordered the chief of builders to be hanged.The chief lay the blame on the workmen who further blamed that bricks were of the wrong size.The masons,however,shifted the blame on to the architect. The architect in directly blamed the king as he had amended his original plan. The king sought a wise men's council. He decided that anybody  who would be found guilty would be hanged. People and soldiers were becoming restless with the passage of time and demanded a hanging.Only the kings head could feed the nooe and he was eventually hanged. According to customs, it was decided that the person who would pass the City Gate next would choose the king. The person was actually an idiot and answered 'a melon' to everything he was asked. So,a melon was crowned the king finally.

2)The State where the king was just and placid seems to be a backward region full of ignorant fools and ruled by a whimsical king.The king's word is a command and unwritten law.The whole process of changing judgements on the respective appeals seemed like a mock trial.The ministers and councillors are selfish and speak highly of him to flatter him only.The people don't bother much about the king and want their survival only.

3)Various people advocate various means of maintaining peace and liberty in a State.We think the best course lies in good governance. Whatever is well administered is most fruitful for both the citizen as well as the rulers.A strong state is safe against any external threat. Free expression of opinions must be allowed but respect for law should also be observed. People should be conscious of their rights as well as responsibilities.

4)"The Tale of Melon City" is full of instances of humour and ironies. The way the people who are accused smear-campaign each other is quite funny. The king's anger and inability to act calmly also creates more humour. The king is hanged by his own order and the custom of choosing the next King further adds to the humour and irony of the story.

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Thursday, September 2, 2021

Silk Road;NCERT Solutions and Summary for Class 11

                                 Silk Road 
                                       -Nick Middleton
Text:


Image Courtesy:NCERT;Ncert Books by Supercop
Please tap on the image once to get a more sharper and legible copy of the book.

Summary:
"Silk Road" by Nick Middleton is a brief account of the narrator's journey from the slopes of Ravu to Mount Kailash to complete the 'Kora'.He hired Testan's car for his journey and took Daniel along with him to escort him to Darchen.

The story opens on a morning when the narrator was bidding farewell to his friends as he was undertaking a journey to Mount Kailash.Lhama gave him a long-sleeved sheepskin coats which would keep him warm.He took Daniel along with him as his companion.The narrator also hired Tsetan to drive him up to Mt.Kailash.

When they started their journey,Tsetan took a short-cut to the South-West which was actually a direct route to Mt.Kailash.They had to cross high mountain passes to reach their destination.Tsetan assured them there would be no problems at all if there would be no snow on their path.They also crossed a few gazelles,a herd of wild asses and shepherds tending the flocks.

As they neared the hills,they passed various dark tents which were home for nomads.He saw a Tibetan mastiff standing outside the tent as a guard.These mastiffs ran after his car as soon as they neared the tents with blazing speed often compelling the driver to brake and swerve.

As soon as they were entering the valley,snow-capped mountains were becoming visible gradually.They also witnessed rivers flowing which were blocked with ice.When they were riding through the hill,the turns became sharper and roads became bumpier.Tsetan was driving in the third gear and still then the narrator could feel the pressure in his ears.By checking his wristwatch,he found that they were 5210 meters above sea level.

They reached their first hurdle which was a road filled with snow.However,Tsetan threw dirt on the snow-covered roads and drove carefully on that road.This allowed them to continue their journey but the narrator felt his head was hurting.They were still climbing up the hills.Soon,they reached at 5515 meters above sea level.They stopped again and this time the fuel tank hissed when he unscrewed the top. He found that the petrol was expanding due to low atmospheric pressure and warned them not to smoke around it.

Soon, in the afternoon at around 2 o'clock,they stopped for lunch. The narrator's headache was gone by now. By late afternoon, they reached a small town called 'Hor'.They reached the east- west Highway again. It was the old route from Lhasa to Kashmir. Here, Daniel got off the car and took lift to Lhasa. There were many functions in the car by then which worried Tsetan. he got them fixed while the narrator took a cup of tea at a local cafe. He found 'Hor' to be a miserable place as it had no vegetation. After a while,Tsetan reached to him and they resumed their journey.

At night,around 10:30 PM,they stopped at a guest house in Darchen to spend the night.Here,the narrator fell ill and suffered from nose-congestion due to the sudden change in altitude and cold weather.He stayed awake all night.Tsetan took him to Tibetan Medical College where the narrator consulted a Tibetan doctor who gave him a five-day course of medicines.

After taking a full day of medicine,the author was feeling good.As he was starting to feel good,Tsetan left him for Lhasa.Now,the narrator described about Darchen.Darchen was a dusty,partially derelict and punctuated by heaps of rubble and refuse.The place had general stores,men playing pool and women washing their hair in brooks.However,the place had no pilgrims.

But he met a person called Norbu in Darchen's only cafe.He was a Tibetan working in Beijing.He had also came to Darchen to complete the 'Kora' just like the narrator.He was fat but the narrator found him to be the ideal companion.They hired yaks to carry their luggage.The narrator felt at ease at having Norbu as his travel companion.

Difficult Words:
1)Rose-tinted:A colour associated with pink.
2)Ravu:A place in Tibet.
3)Kora:The circumambulation of one's placeof worship.
4)Ducking Back:Quickly going inside and then coming out.
5)Sheepskin:Skin of a sheep used for textile purposes.
6)Clambered:Climb or move in an awkward and labourious way.
7)Drokba:A term which refers to the people who wonder as nomads in the region of Tibet.
8)Gazelles:A small,slender antelope.
9)Nibbling:Take small bites out of.
10)Galloping:Going at the pace of gallop.
11)En Masse:In group.
12)Plumes:Trails.
13)Billowed:Filled with air.
14)Manoeuvres:Military exercises.
15)Evasive:Slippery.
16)Veering:To change direction suddenly.
17)Mastiff:A specific breed of dog.
18)Shaggy:Bushy or hairy.
19)Swerve:Change direction suddenly.
20)Glinting:Sparkle or twinkle.
21)Daubed:Spread a thick substance on a surface carelessly.
22)Swathe:A broad strip or area of something.
23)Petered:To gradually become smaller.
24)Lurching:Make an abrupt or uncontrolled movement.
25)Cairn:A mound of rough stones.
26)Festooned:To adorn a place with decorations.
27)Careered Down:Move swiftly in an uncontrolled way.
28)Salt-Flats:Areas of flat lands covered with salt.
29)Salt-encrusted boots:Shoes on which salt is encrusted upon.
30)Refuse:Rubbish.
31)Pickaxes:A tool used to break hard surfaces.
32)Venerated:Regard with great respect.
33)Draught:Denoting beverages served from a barrel or tank.
34)Sinus:A connected system of hollow cavities in skull.
35)Propping:To support or keep in position.
36)Monastery:A place of worship for Buddhist people.
37)Paraphernalia:Equipment needed for a particular activity.
38)Pellets:A small rounded body.
39)Rudimentary:Related to a basic form.
40)Incongrous:Out of place.
41)Cavernous:Like a cavern in size.
42)Voluminous:Very lengthy and detailed.
43)Windcheater:A thin fabric jacket designed to resist chill wind.   
44)Fieldwork:A process of observing and collecting data physically.
45)Ill-equipped:Not having the necessary resources.
46)Envisaged:Form a mental picture of.
47)Hysterical:Affected by uncontrolled emotion.

About Author:
Nick Middleton (1960-) is a British physical geographer.As a geographer who has travelled to more than 50 countries,he is a person with a ton of experience in this field.He has written a number of books regarding climate change.

NCERT Questions:
A)Understanding the text.

I)1)The title of the chapter has been rightly named in reference to the silk road or routes.It was a well-known trade relations path which helped in the expansion of trade with the rest of the continent.Textiles in general and silk in particular was traded along the route.Since the narrator explored this region,the chapter is aptly titled as "Silk Road".

2)Tibetan mastiffs were quite popular in China's imperial courts as they were simply great for hunting.They were brought along the Silk Road in ancient times as tribute from Tibet.They are usually ferocious and fast as bullets.

3)According to the author,'Hor' was a miserable town.The dust and rocks were scattered everywhere in abundance.There was little vegetation in the area.The place seemed dejected and unfortunate.This was a stark contrast to what he had read and heard.According to travellers,the place was totally fabulous.A Japanese traveller,Ekai Kawaguchi,had burst into tears upon seeing the sanctity of the Mansarovar lake.The good view of the lake though compensated for his disappointment.

4)The author felt disappointed at Darchen.The high altitude gave him health problems.He had a bad cold which didn't allow him to sleep at night.
The place was moreover dusty and derelict.This was all okay but his major problem was that there were no pilgrims.

5)The author was disappointed with Darchen.He also got a bad cold.He was feeling low as he also could not get anybody to start a perfect conversation.There were no pilgrims too.But he then met Norbu who agreed to accompany him on his journey to Mount Kailash as he also to complete his 'Kora'.The narrator's positive thinking was paying back finally.

II)1)The author is actually a geographer and loves adventure.He follows a difficult path and visits the Mount Kailash to complete his 'Kora'.

2)The author's physical condition at Darchen had completely deteriorated.He couldn't sleep in the night as he was having congestion in his nose.This was because he had rapidly ascended the mountains.

3)The author was feeling quite low at Darchen as he was all alone there.There were n't pilgrims at Darchen either which added to his disappointment.However,as he met Norbu who agreed to accompany him in his journey,he became cheerful.

4)Tsetan was accompanying the narrator in his journey as a driver.He was an efficient and experienced driver and drive the car carefully.He also kept the author informed about the places they were passing by.When the narrator fell ill at Darchen,he took him to a doctor.

5)Tsetan was a Buddhist and believed that death is not the end of life.However,it would be bad for his business as his credibility was at stake.He also helped the narrator in consulting a doctor.

B)Talking about Text.

1)People living up in the hills are unsophisticated and simple.They are God-fearing people.They are very much hospitable and take great care of the visitors from outside.

2)Humans have always craved for adventure and thrill.They undertake these journeys willingly despite knowing the fact that these are pretty risky. Sometimes people also undertake such journeys because of religious reasons.

3)There are many accounts of exotic places in legends and reality. Places like Mount Kailash, Mansarovar occupy a prominent place in legends. There are many articles written about these places.

C)Thinking about Language.

1)Tartan was a person living up in the
 hills.I think he might pick the the language by briefly conversing with fellow tourists. His English was broken.

2)i)This statement means the author conveyed his plans to Lhamo through Daniel as Lhamo did not know about English language.

ii)The doctor spoke in Tibetan language which Tsetan translated for the author.This meant that the doctor did not know about English and the author did not know about Tibetan language.

3)i)Kora:Circumbulate around a holy place.
ii)Drokba:Shepherd.
iii)Kyang:Wild Tibetan Ass

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No part of this publication may be reproduced,stored in a retrieval system of transmitted,in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical,photocopying,recording or otherwise without the prior permission of the publisher.

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Super Notes for Liquid Solutions

This post contains" SUPER NOTES " for the Chapter Liquid Solutions .This is quite important chapter from JEE as well as Class 12 B...