Friday, February 11, 2022

Indigo; NCERT Solutions and Summary for Class 12

                                              -Louis Fischer
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The author had first met Gandhi in the year 1942 at his ashram in Sevagram.Gandhiji had told him he initiated the departure of the British forces from India.He recalled that he had visited Champaran in 1917 at the sincere request of a sharecropper named Rajkumar Shukla.

Actually,Gandhiji had gone to Lucknow to attend the annual meeting of the Indian National Congress in 1916.There he met Shukla who had come all the way from Champaran.He seeked his help in order to safeguard the economic interests of the sharecroppers.Gandhiji told Shukla that he was busy but Shukla was insistent.He accompanied him to various places until Gandhiji agreed to come with him.

His firm will impressed Gandhiji a lot and he promised Shukla that he would be in Calcutta on a particular date and then Shukla could come and take him to Champaran.After meeting each other in Calcutta,they boarded a train from for Patna.There,they went to the house of a lawyer named Rajendra Prasad who went on to become the first President of independent India.However,Mr.Prasad was not at home.

In order to get a more unbiased and comprehensive image of the entire scenario,Gandhiji along with Shukla reached Muzzafarnagar on 15th April,1917.He was given a warm welcome by Professor J.B. Kriplani and his students.He was literally surprised to see such support for an advocate of "Swadesh"  like him in the rural localities too.

He met some lawyers who were already handling cases of the sharecroppers and peasants.As per their explanation,the contract stated that 15% of the peasants' land holding was to be reserved for the cultivation of Indigo,the crop of which the landlords were paid a rent.The system was indeed very oppressive and Gandhi wanted to help these sharecroppers.He visited the British Landlord Association  but was denied any sort of information because he was an outsider.He went to the commissioner of Tirhut division who threatened Gandhiji and asked him to leave Tirhut immediately.

But,it was not easy to shatter Gandhiji's adamant vision of helping the sharecroppers.Instead of returning,he went to Motihari.There he started gathering more information on the Indigo contract.He was also soon extended support from many lawyers who believed in the cause.

One day when he was on his way to meet a peasant who was maltreated by Indigo planters,he was stopped by the Police Superintendent messenger and served him with a notice that asked Gandhi to leave.But,Gandhi disobeyed the order.A case was filed against him.Many lawyers came to advise him but when he stressed,all of them joined his struggle and even consented to go to jail.

On the day of the trial,a large crowd gathered near the court.It became impossible to handle them but Gandhiji calmed them down and helped the officers control the mob.In his statement,he said that he was not at all a law breaker but disobeyed the notice knowingly so that he could help out the peasants.The judgement was made in favour of Gandhi where he was granted bail and later on the case against him was also dropped.

Now,again he and his associates tried their level best to conduct more data and information about the Indigo contract and its blatant misuse.A commission was formed to look into this matter.

An inquiry was conducted and the planters were found guilty and asked to pay back to the peasants.They offered only 25% of the amount but Gandhi accepted this offer because this freed the peasants from the binding Indigo contract.

Gandhiji also denied permission to Andrews,a peacemaker, to make an ashram in Champaran because he wanted Indians to be self-reliant.At the end,he told that the Champaran event left a lasting impression on him.He felt that he didn't need permission from anyone to do anything good while living in his own country.

Difficult Words:
i) Emaciated:Thin.
ii)Sharecroppers:A tenant farmer who gives a                                    part of each crop as rent.
iii)Cawnpore:British name for "Kanpur".
v)Yeoman:A man who cultivates a small piece of land.
vi)Arable:Land which is suitable for farming.
ix)Multitude:A large number of people.
x)Pronounce:(Here)To declare or announce.
xi)Reconvened:To start again after a small break.
xiii)Entrety:An earnest or humble request.
xiv)Abstractions:Something which exists only                                    as an idea.

About Author:
Louis Fischer (1896-1970) was born in Philadelphia.He served as a volunteer in the British Army between 1918-1920.Later on,he made a career as a journalist and wrote for The NY Times,The Saturday Review and for European and Asian publications.He was also a faculty member in the University of Princeton.

NCERT Questions:
A)Understanding the Text.

1)The Champaran event left a lasting impression in Gandhi's mind.He had solved the various problems faced by peasants and sharecroppers.They were relieved from the oppression they were facing for a long time because of the planters and the landlords.Thousands of people flocked out to support Gandhiji in this noble cause.The Champaran Movement is an important as it transformed Gandhi into a national figure.He was very clear that no outsider should instruct him or his countrymen about what to do and how to do it.

2)Gandhiji was always a good leader.He asked various lawyers about the ways by which they had helped the peasants.He listened them and tried his best to understand the plight of the sharecroppers.He made them realise their duty towards the farmers.They became so influenced by him that they were also ready to go behind the bars with Gandhiji.

3)During the Indian freedom struggle,most average Indians living in smaller localities feared to support the advocates of "Swadesh" as it that they were directly going against the British government. These people refrained from participating in any political demonstration or protests. However,in Champaran, the support Gandhiji got from the locals was very amazing. It was surprising for Gandhiji that Professor 
Malkani allowed him to stay at his house even though he was a government servant.

4)Along with the freedom fighters, ordinary people also contributed to the freedom movement extensively. This can also be observed by the following instances:

A large no. of students accompanied Prof. J.B. Kriplani to welcome Gandhi at Muzaffarnagar Railway Station.
A large no. of peasants also came to see him by foot.
To show support for Gandhi,a large no. of people also demonstrated around the courtroom.

B)Talking about the Text.

1)Poor people in the corners of India are slowly getting justice and empowered. But, one of the truth which still observed in these deprived sections of the society is that this still have a certain sense of fear from the the upper classes of the society. This can be attributed to the colonial times when the poor people fear the government authorities. This is what is needed that we must remove this element of fear from the minds of the people.

2)It is rightly said that bad team can come out victorious if it is having a good captain. A good leader is a person who gives credit to his team members but great leader is the one who does all the work in the background and takes credit for it. He continuously motivates his team members to become better version of themselves and takes care of everyone.

No part of this publication may be reproduced,stored in a retrieval system of transmitted,in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical,photocopying,recording or otherwise without the prior permission of the publisher.

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Thursday, February 10, 2022

Evans Tries An O-Level;NCERT Solutions and Summary for Class 12

                      Evans Tries An O-Level
                                                   -Colin Dexter
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The story "Evans Tries An O-Level" by Colin Dexter is actually a crime thriller revolving around an escape plan of a prisoner called Evans.He had planned to escape the jail on the day of his German O-Level Language examination.

The story begins with a telephonic conversation between the Governor and the examination board secretary.The prison authorities wanted to conduct a O-Level examination in German language for a prisoner called as Evans.The secretary asked a few more questions regarding the venue and the person who would be invigilating the examination.To these questions,the Governor replied that the examination can be conducted in Evans' cell and a churchman named Stuart Mc Leery would be presiding over the examination to invigilate.They both end their conversation on this note that the examination needs to be conducted safely.

A senior official named Jackson visited Evans' cell to conduct an inspection so that any weapon which may be hidden in the cell could be removed.The prison authorities were a bit wary and apprehensive of Evans as he had earlier also tried to escape the prison.The Governor was also not all ready to take any risk in this case as it might bring a bad name to him.They had taken away his nail scissors earlier but now they also took away his razor blade.In the fear that he might escape,they were also taking away his hat but he insisted that they left it because it was lucky for him.

By this,all sorts of arrangements were made to keep a check on Evans with even a microphone placed in his cell.On the day of the examination,the churchman,Mc Leery reached the cell with assistance from Stephens.The Governor was told that the exam was about to begin and the cell had no weapons in it.Still then,to make all arrangements totally secure the Governor ordered the concerned officer to check Mc Leery's belongings so that Evans doesn't use any of it as a weapon.A paper knife from the belongings of the churchman was removed because Evans might have used to make a possible escape.They also found a semi-filled tube in the churchman's bag which the churchman said he used because he was suffering from piles.

Then,the examination began and everything spoken in the cell was constantly heard by the Governor.Meanwhile,a phone call from the examination board for some amends in the question paper made him suspicious.He cross checked it by dialing the contact number again but it was busy.Again,there was a phone call from the Magistrate demanding for some police officers and a van.Such things were making the Governor suspicious but he calmed down as he was quite sure of his security arrangements.

Stephens was positioned just outside the cell and glanced into the cell periodically.There was nothing at first but later on he found that Evans had put a blanket around himself.At first,he was suspicious but stopped thinking much because it was also really cold inside the cell.

After the examination was conducted,as per the Governor's orders,Stephens escorted Mr. Mc Leery to the prison gate.Everything went as planned and Stephens was satisfied to have done his work with accuracy.To be certain of himself,he again went to the cell for a final check.Here,he was completely shocked what he saw next.

Mc Leery was lying in a pool of blood.Soon,the news was out that Evans had escaped the jail by impersonating his exam invigilator and injuring him.Mc Leery was immediately taken to the Governor as he had something important news to share with him.He told the Governor that a photocopy was placed on question paper which shared the escape plan with Evans.

The governor decoded the photocopy to which he found that Evans would reach NewBury after his jail break.Soon,Superintendent Carter was called and Mc Leery was sent with him to catch Evans.Jackson and Stephens were taken into task for being unaware about Evans having a false beard and the churchman's belongings in the cell.He ordered both of them to go to St.Aldates Police station and meet Chief Inspector Bell.

In this while,Carter called him up to inform that they missed Evans while chasing him and Mc Leery was sent to Radcliffe hospital.The governor called up the hospital to know that they had sent an ambulance to the examination board but the churchman had already disappeared.Now,all the pieces of the puzzle were slowly falling in place in the Governor's mind as he decoded the entire plan of Evans.He understood that all this time the Mc Leery who was helping them chase Evans was actually Evans himself.

When searched for,the real Mc Leery was found tied up in his house by the police.The Governor promptly took counter action as he didn't want to let Evans escape again.Evans had reached a hotel called as Golden Lion and enjoying his new-found freedom.When he reached his room though,he was taken aback.The Governor was already waiting for him inside the room.

The Governor warned him that there is no way for him to escape as his men were all around them.The Governor curiously asked about his plan and Evans explained it to them in each detail getting attention.After all this,the prison van was called to take Evans to the prison back.The Governor was also very proud that he had caught him.

As soon as the van turned on its ignition,the prison officer unlocked his handcuffs and asked the driver to drive fast so that they could escape the police.Once again,Evans had escaped the police with the help of his associates.

Difficult Words:
i)Cost him a packet:To cost a lot of money.
ii)Kleptomania:A strong desire to steal.
iv)Incommunicado:Not able or allowed to                                               communicate.
v)Guten Gluck:German word for 'Good Luck'.
vi)Herr:German word for 'Mister'.
vii)Danke Schon:German word for 'Thank You'.
viii)Haven't a cat in Hell's chance:To be completely unable to do something.
x)Ramrod:(Here)A strict supervisor.
xi)Paper Knife:Blunt knife used to cut paper.
xii)Reverend:A member of the church.
xv)Twang:A strong ringing sound.
xvi)Jack-Knife:A large knife with a folding                                       mechanism.
xvii)Riffle:To turn pages quickly.
xviii)Haemorrhoids:A swollen vein or a group of                                    veins.
xxi)Staccato:A short musical note.
xxii)Blither:A long conversation with no real                             substance.
xxiii)Askew:Tilted or angled.
xxvii)Crescendo:The loudest point of a sound.
xxx)Bobble:A small ball attached to a hat.
xxxi)Fiddling:Something which is pretty                                       annoying.
xxxiii)Pint:A unit of volume.
xxxiv)Clambered:To climb.

About Author:
Norman Colin Dexter was born on 29th September,1930 was an English crime writer known for his "Inspector Morse" series of novels.He has also received a "Macavity Award" for this story 'Evans Tries an O-Level'.He was also appointed as Officer of the order of the British Empire because of his services to literature.

NCERT Questions:
A)Reading with Insight.

1)It was Evans who had the last laugh.This certainly depicts that the criminals always remain one step ahead of legal authorities.The whole play is centred around the theme which makes fun of the routine procedure followed by prison authorities and policemen.The last laugh of Evans signified that he,inspite of all security arrangements,escaped from prison victoriously.
He had successfully deceived all of the prison workforce.

2)On his return to the cell,Stephens saw a man sprawling back in Evans' chair.The small black beard,white clerical collar and the black clerical front and blood dripping from his forehead immediately alarmed him and tensed him.This was so sudden and tense that he immediately jumped on to the conclusion that Evans had escaped and everybody was after catching him while nobody even cared to verify the identity of
Mc Leery.

For clever criminals like Evans,it was all a cake walk where nobody paid him much attention and he managed to escape.He was also familiar about what ways they would try to catch him.It was his passport to freedom.

3)The Governor should have himself taken Evans back to the prison because he had only two persons with him.He didn't bother to check the identity of the prisoners' officers with whom he was leaving Evans with.This was because layer on it was find that they were associates of Evans who helped him escape.

The Governor is credulous and a ordinary policeman like others in his team because in his enthusiasm to locate and send him again back to jail had made him forget to take care of the basic security protocols.He also made a mistake by putting his faith in the wrong persons.

4)People definitely condemn the crime as it is certainly an evil act against law and society.They are also punished.But,efforts are also continuously made in order to reform these criminals.These efforts do show the desired results in the long term and make the concerned authorities a bit inclined towards these people.Sympathy for these people as they live and spend their life in prisons is also one of the probable reasons.

5)Crime and punishment are like a train where the latter follows the farmer.Only when a crime is commited,law agencies chase these offenders and charge them.After nabbing them, suitable sentences are given to them on the basis of which they are punished.Since,all the parties try to come out victorious,criminals and law agencies are always engaged in a perennial battle to outwit the other party.

No part of this publication may be reproduced,stored in a retrieval system of transmitted,in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical,photocopying,recording or otherwise without the prior permission of the publisher.

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Monday, February 7, 2022

On the face of it;NCERT Solutions and Summary for Class 12

                           On the face of it
                                                 -Susan Hill
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"On the face of it" by Susan Hill revolves around the story of a boy called Derry who had suffered from acid burns which had made his face ugly.He was always apprehensive about talking or meeting people.One fine day,he stumbled upon Mr.Lamb who gave his life the much-needed makeover.

The story starts with a teenage boy trying to enter a garden.His face is burnt on side because of an accident when acid fell on half of his face.He had entered the garden so that people don't see him.He wanted to hide his face badly because he was apprehensive of people making fun or getting disgusted of his burnt and disfigured face.

On his entry to the garden,he found a oldan sitting there in the garden.He tried to leave this place too but the old man stopped him.The old man was actually Mr.Lamb who was the owner of the garden Derry had just entered.Derry felt guilty to have entered the garden without anyone's permission but on the contrary Mr.Lamb welcomed him heartily and told him not to leave the garden because of his presence.
Derry was actually trying to leave because of the facial burn marks he had on his face.But,he stayed back as Mr.Lamb was almost insistent about Derry staying back.

Soon,both of them entered a conversation where they discussed about Derry not being liked by anyone because of his disfigured face.He also started to despise those people who had behaved with him in that way.Mr.Lamb consoled him.Coincidentally,Mr.Lamb was a disabled person too because one of his legs was of tin.He had a prosthetic leg because his other leg was lost in war.He gave an instance where kids made fun of him and his condition yet he is not at all depressed but lives life to the fullest.

All these revealations made Derry at home with Mr.Lamb as the old man could emphathize with him.They made conversation about various things and soon Derry revealed his fear and depression he was suffering because of his ugly face.But,Mr.Lamb kept telling him various positive things which would make him a little better mentally.He made his understand that he can even outperform any other normal with determination and hardwork.

Soon,they became friends and Mr.Lamb requested Derry to help him in plucking siem crab apples from the tree of his garden.Derry told him that he cannot help him then because he had come too far from his home without telling his mother. Mr.Lamb told him to come back after taking permission from his mother.Derry found it difficult and quarreled with Mr.Lamb but eventually agreed.

On reaching his home,he asked his mother for permission to go back to Mr.Lamb's garden.His mother denied him permission but he didn't obey her and went out as he had to fulfill his promise.
However,Mr.Lamb,in the meanwhile had already climbed the tree and started plucking the crab apples.He was pretty sure that the boy wouldn't turn up again.Unfortunately,as he was disabled,he fell of the ladder and died.On returning,Derry found Mr.Lamb lying on the ground and tried to make him move a lot but in vain.He simply didn't gave any sort of response.He realised that Mr.Lamb was already on the way to his heavenly abode.

The story teaches us that scars don't change a person.With his disfigured face,Derry had to suffer a lot because which had made him pessimistic.However,Mr.Lamb motivated him to lead a normal life again as everything depends upon a people's individual outlook.

Difficult Words:
i)Crab Apples:A small sour apple.
ii)Windfalls:Unexpected gains.
iii)Scrump:To steal from an orchard or garden.
iv)Daft:Silly or foolish.
v)Trespassing:Enter without permission.
vi)Swish:A hissing sound.

About Author:
Born on 5th Feb,1942 Dame Susan Hill is an English author of several fiction and non-fiction works.For her novels,she has also received the Somerset Maugham Award in 1971.In 1972,she also won the John Llewellyn Rhys Prize for 'The Albatross'.

NCERT Questions:
A)Reading with Insight.

1)Derry was a teenage boy while Mr.Lamb was old but the commonality between them was that Derry had one side of his face disfigured by acid burns whereas Mr.Lamb had a tin leg because his real leg got blown off during a war.Both of them suffered from physical disabilities and this was what drew Derry towards Mr.Lamb.Moreover,apart from these physical disabilities,Derry found signs of loneliness and disappointment in Mr.Lamb's life.This was also common to Derry because he avoided socialising with others because of his ugly face Mr.Lamb was also very motivating and infused Derry with various things which made him look life in a more positive light.All these things made Derry feel at ease with Mr.Lamb.

2)In the middle part of the first scene,we observe that Mr.Lamb is lonely.He tells Derry that when it will be a bit more cooler,he will get a ladder and a stick and will fetch the crab apples.He makes jelly with those crab apples and Derry could help him in doing this work.He tells him how he is interested in anything God has created even too rubbish.He describes how he sits in the open Sun reading books.He even doesn't use curtains in his house because he wants to enjoy both sunlight and darkness.All these definitely shows how lonely he was but also the various ways by which he was overcoming those.

3)The story describes the world from the viewpoint of a specially-abled person.These people not only suffer from physical pain but also from indifferent and absurd behaviour of people around them.They are teased and disliked by others.The protagonists of the story Derry and Mr.Lamb are some of the striking examples of how these specially-abled people are suffering in our society even now.Derry has got a burnt face and people don't like being with him.They find him ugly and slowly he even stopped socialising with others.Mr.Lamb had lost a leg in a war and used a tin leg and kids teased nd called him several names such 'lamey lamb'.He is all alone in his big house and has no one in his life.These examples also show these people undergo continuous sufferings because of the alienation.They don't expect any kind of sympathy or help but just expect others to behave with them like normal people.

4)In my personal opinion,I think Derry will not get back to his old seclusion because Mr.Lamb completely changes his perspective about life.His worldview got a complete makeover when Mr.Lamb told him that hating people and living alone is certainly more dangerous than the acid burns he had sufferred.He told him to face people upfront as it was only his face which had been disfigured.He has his rest of the body functional which could definitely help him to do whatever he wished in life.And,with determination and hardwork,Derry can possibly achieve more than a normal person.All this motivation gave him the much-needed makeover he needed in his life.

No part of this publication may be reproduced,stored in a retrieval system of transmitted,in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical,photocopying,recording or otherwise without the prior permission of the publisher.

#Hey!This is an in-depth piece of genuine writing by EduRankers' team.There may be some inadvertent typing mistakes.Please report and we will definitely get back to you.Ask your queries in the comments section.Keep hustling!


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A Roadside Stand; NCERT Solutions and Summary for Class 12

                            A Roadside Stand                                                        - Robert Frost Text: ...