Saturday, July 31, 2021

Discovering Tut:the Saga Continues; NCERT Solutions and Summary for Class 11


           Discovering Tut:the Saga Continues
                                                 -A.R. Williams
Text:



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Please tap on the image once to get a more sharper and legible copy of the book.

Summary:
"Discovering Tut:the Saga Continues" by A.R. Williams is a documentary which gives us an in-depth insight into Tutankhamun's life and the discovery of his mummy.

He was a teenager when he died and the reason behind has always been a mystery.He was the last heir of a powerful family that had ruled Egypt and its empire for centuries.The Pharoah and his family were quite interesting too.Tut's father or grandfather,Amenhotep III,was a very powerful ruler ruling for around 40 years.His son,Amenhotep IV,succeeded him and initiated one of the strangest eras in the history of Egypt.He promoted the worship of Aten,changed his name to Akhenaten,moved the religious capital from Thebes to present-day Amarna.He also attacked a God named Amun,devasted his temples and images.Another ruler named Smenkhare succeeded him but was only in the throne for a brief period.After that,Tuthankhamun had been crowned the Pharoah.He ruled for nine years and his fame was spread till far-flung places.

His body was mummified and was laid down.His mummy was finally discovered in 1922,after around 3200 years later.Howard Carter,a British archaeologist,had discovered the tomb.Carter had found the mummy after around 9 years of thorough searching.

He was pretty astonished to see all the treasures along with the coffin.The coffin was laden with loads of gold,inlaid bracelets,amulets as well as other valuables.It also had various things of everyday usage such as bronze razor,games,clothes,cases of food and wine.After researching on the treasures,he decided to investigate his 3 nested coffins.Finally,when he found the mummy,he ran into trouble.The ritual resins had hardened and cemented Tut to the bottom of the solid gold tomb.It was almost to move the mass.He tried to loosen these by putting the coffin in open Sun however in vain.They had to remove the resins with the help of chisel and hammer to separate the mummy from the adornments.Carter felt they didn't have any other choice as to if he had not cut the muumy,thieves would have looted the gold.They cut the mummy from limb to limb.They removed its head and nearly every major joint.They resembled the remains on a layer of sand in a wooden box with padding which hid the damage,where Tut now rests.

In 1968,the mummy was X-rayed by an anatomy professor who revealed that his breast bones and front ribs were missing.Later,on 5th of January on 2005,Tut was taken from his tomb for a CT scan.This test takes hundreds of X-rays and creates a 3D image.The night of the scan was a stormy one.Zahi Hawass,Secretary General of Egypt's Supreme council of Antiquities,observed that the mummy was in a bad condition.The CT scan was carried out to prove the mysteries around Tut and his death. The city scan went without any  major problems everybody was relieved.

Difficult Words:
1)Laden:Loaded.
2)Tomb:An enclosure to bury the dead.
3)Forensic Construction:The process of                                                                    recreating the face of                                                        an individual.
4)Pharoah:A ruler in ancient Egypt.
5)Scudded Across:Moving quickly.
6)Casket:A small ornamental box to store                            valuables.
7)Probe:To investigate.
8)Lingering:Long-lasting.
9)Glided:Covered thinly with gold.
10)Murals:Any piece of art painted or applied on                     wall.
11)Antiquities:An object, building, or work of art                           from the ancient past.
12)Resurrection:A concept of coming back to                                   life.
13)Circumvented:Overcome something in a                                         clever way.
14)Amulets:An object meant to confer                                       protection upon its possessor.
15)Computed Tomography:A process by which                                                    a 3D image is                                                              formulated.
16)Wacky:Funny or amusing in a peculiar or                            crazy way.
17)Eerie Detail(Here):Strange image of Tut's  
                                     head.
18)Radiology:Science dealing with X-rays and                              other high energy radiations.
19)Pallbearers:A person helping to carry a                                      coffin.
20)Constellation:A group of stars forming a                                        recognisable pattern.

About Author:
A.R. Williams,born on April,1988, is an award-winning writer,reporter,editor with experience in archaeology as well as cultural heritage. He is a news writer and editor specialising in archaeology and volcanoes.He is  based in Washington D.C.

NCERT Questions:
A)Understanding the Text

1)i)The mummy of King Tutankhamun and always attracted attention from all around the globe for the riches it was buried with. There were also very respect relation about the manner of his death and his age at the time of death. Hence,the Pharoah's dead body has been subjected to repeated scrutiny.

ii)Howard's investigation was resented because he excavated the mummy using unorganised ways. He eventually severed the body of the Pharaoh and used unscientific ways to carry out the research. He was also accused of focusing more on the pressure rather than the cultural and historical aspects of the Pharaoh.

iii)When Carter found that the resins used for each ritualistic reasons had hardened and cemented Tut's body to the bottom of the coffin use,he tried to loosen the  coffin by putting it on the blazing Sun. However, the sun could not loosen the resins.They were forced to chisel the resins and get the young king's remnants.

iv)The people in ancient Egypt believed in the resurrection of the dead. Their kings were extremely rich.They were buried with their treasures so that the Pharoah could use them after their resurrection.

v)Tutankhamun means "Living image of Amun" in Egyptian language. He was a major God in ancient Egyptian culture. His predecessor had smashed everything related to God "Amun". However,Tut oversaw a restoration of the old ways. He changed his name to express his believe in "Amun".

2)i)Ray Johnson,director of a centre in Luxor, described "Akhenaten"as a little wacky because of his deeds. He changed his name from Amenhotep to Akhenaten to express his belief for the Egyptian God "Aten". He moved the religious capital from the old city of Thebes to present day in Amarna. He devastated everything associated with Egypt God "Amun" and closed his temples.

ii)The results of the CT scan with quite interesting.Using the  CT scan, around 1700 digital X-Ray images in cross section were created which helped in formulating a 3D-image of Tuthankhamun.

iii) technology has evolved rapidly over the years. Advancements in technology have helped in improving forensic analysis significantly. Various scientific tests have been discovered and improvised which can give us a great deal of evidence.These include X-ray,Ultrasound,CT scan, Postmortem,Autopsy et cetera.All these provide accurate details throwing light on certain facts.

iv)King Tut's mummy was the first one to be extracted by an anatomy professor in 1968.On January 5,2005,a CT scan was carried on his mummy helping at your archaeologists to create a 3D image of his body.Thus,in death as well as in life,Tut moved regally ahead of his countrymen.

B)Talking about the Text

1)For the motion:
Every nation glorifies its golden past,culture and civilization.Certain mysteries lie buried with them. Scientific invention can help in underlying these mysteries as well as some tokens of history. For example,in case of Tutankhamun archaeological science has helped in clearing the dust and cloud surrounding various myths regarding him.

Against the motion:
Scientific invention can also cause damage to buried mysteries and the tokens of the past. In order to extract information,they can sometimes even cause irreparable loss to those valuable tokens.In this case, Howard Carter who discovered the Mummy severed the Mummy into several parts to examine it.

2)For the motion:
Advanced technology alone can help us to get accurate facts about the past.There are many events in history surrounded by myths.Myths and legends surround even the most celebrated personalities in history.People have given coloured versions of the past to suit the demands of other people.Hence,we get wrapped versions of past events.Only advanced technology can give us the right perspective about those events.

Against the motion:
Advanced technology gives us conclusive evidence about the past but it holds good in certain cases only. It is unfair to generalise and hold it true for all cases. Sometimes, processing the available data may yield contradictory accounts and create more confusion than unraveling the knotted issues. Sometimes, the provided date me fall in sufficient to get a proper analysis and examination.The tests may successfully determine the time period of the action but it is quite difficult to assess the causes that prompted it are the repercussions which followed it.

3)For the motion:
Different religions,cultures,civilization follow various traditions rituals and funerary practices.Ancient Egyptians had mastered the art of mummifying dead bodies and believed in resurrection.Certain traditional practices were followed during burying a dead person. Ritualistic resins were applied around the mummy. The burial chamber and grave content things of daily usage. The funerary practices held is certain sanctity for the followers of a particular religion or faith.

Against the motion:
The world is on the move. We must look forward and must not rely on our past achievements or laurels. If tradition,culture and rituals block the flow of information and knowledge,these things should be overlooked for the greater benefit of humanity. We should conduct our probe more objectively and dispassionately so that facts have more weightage then the beliefs attached to them. A detached look can provide us with clear understanding of past events.

4)For the motion:
Modern world has expanded the frontiers of knowledge.Due to modernization,the world has transformed into a global village. Information technology has brought a revolution in the field of knowledge.However,our knowledge of past events and tradition is also equally vital.We must thoroughly study the past to aware ourselves of the mistakes our forefathers did so that we don't repeat them.The structure of the future is rooted in the past.The lives of the people from the past act as beacons which can help in enlightening our ways.

Against the motion:
We are constantly learning new things about the world we are living in. The knowledge of present times is far more essential than the knowledge of our past events. Old rituals,tools,ways of conduct and ethos are not going to help us in our struggle for existence in this highly competitive world. The knowledge of the world we need is also restricted to our requirements and we need not bother about knowledge about the past lives.

C)Thinking about language.

1)A language becomes extinct when its usage is restricted to a small class or category of people. The harshness of rules and lack of flexibility in usage also contributes to the extinction of language.

2)It is definitely important to preserve languages.Languages are the vehicles of thought and medium of interaction between the users of that language and the outside world. A  language has intimate connection with the lives, culture and civilization of the people and reflects their thinking.

3)Certain steps must be taken to help prevent the extinction of languages and dialect.We must encourage its usage.A language thrives as long as it is used by the masses.Measures should be taken to propagate the usage of a language. Interpreters and translators may also be provided for the interaction between native users and non-users.Certain incentives in the form of stipends,scholarships or preference in jobs may prove to be effective in attracting the youth towards languages and dialects. State patronage can also help in the preservation of languages.

πŸ“πŸ“πŸ“
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Wednesday, July 28, 2021

The Address;NCERT Solutions and Summary for Class 11

                                 The Address
                                                 -Marga Minco
Text:
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Please tap on the image once to get a more sharper and legible copy of the book.

Summary:
"The Address" by Marga Minco is a story revolving around a girl's journey who goes in search of her mother's belongings.The story rightly highlights human predicament that follows war.The story is most probably set during Holocaust.

The narrator,a Jew,returned back to her native city after the war was over. She has suffered a lot during the war. She had lost her mother. After the war, she faced loneliness and challenges alone. Before the war,her mother had left most of their belongings with Mrs.Dorling,an old acquaintance of hers,and went away.

After the liberation,she returned to her own land.
She remembered those belongings in the care of Mrs.Dorling and wanted to fetch them. She went there and found the address as told by her mother-Marconi Street,Number 46. However,  Mrs.Dorling refused to recognise the narrator. Mrs.Dorling's cold and  indifferent behaviour also depressed her further.Hurt and anguished,she returned back.

After some days,she again called on Mrs.Dorling.However, Mrs.Dorling was not in the house. Her daughter received the narrator and made her sit. As she entered the house,she saw her mother's belongings used in their house. The Hanukkah,table-cloth,antique plates,crockery brought old memories of her mother.

However,the narrator agreed not to take all those things away.She made of her mind to forget her mother's belongings. According to her, all those things had no significance in their lives anymore as her beloved mother had already passed away. She decided to leave her mother's things and forget them forever.

The story conveys is the important message that we must leave peacefully with everybody. We must sympathise with the war victims. One shouldn't behave like Mrs.Dorling sensitively and greedily. She added to the narrator's troubles by not returning her mother's belongings.

Difficult Words:
1)Poignant: Something very saddening or                                   moving.
2)Evoke: To bring or recall something to the                          conscious mind.
3)Cardigan: A type of knitted garment that has                         an open front.
4)Jamb:Side-post or lining of a doorway or                         other aperture.
5)Lugging:The act of carrying and dragging                             something.
6)Crick: A painful spasmodic condition of                            muscles.
7)Running(Here):To suffer.
8)Reprovingly:To scold or express criticism.
9)Coat-Rack: A shelf to keep the coats.
10)Liberation:A kind of settlement to free                                      someone.
11)Hanukkah: A Hebrew festival called "Feast of                           Lights".
12)Muggy: Unpleasantly warm or humid.
13)Severed:Ended or broken off.

About Author:
Marga Minco is a Dutch journalist and writer. Her real surname was Menco. She was born in a Jewish family. She was one of the most famous holocaust survivors. She was born on 31st March,1920. She is a Dutch by origin. She was also awarded Bureau Voor Postreclame en Adressen De Mutator N.V.and we short story prize for writing the story "The Address".

NCERT Questions:
A)Reading with Insight.

1)Yes,this statement gives us some clue about the story.During the early part of the war,Mrs.Dorling who was an acquaintance of the narrator's mother,had shifted most of the important belongings of Mrs.S to her house.Her(Mrs.Dorling) house was situated in Marconi street on house Number 46.These belongings included table silver wares,antique plates and other nice things such as the iron Hanukkah candle holder, woollen table cloth and green knitted cardigan with wooden buttons.Since,Mrs.S had died during the war,Mrs.Dorling did not expect anybody to come back and claim their costlyand antique belongings.

The statement indicates the greedy and possessive nature of Mrs.Dorling.She pretended not to open the door to the daughter of her former acquaintance and didn't even recognised her.She didn't let the girl in.This shows Mrs.Dorling had no intention to return Mrs.S's belongings.

2)During the pre-war times,the narrator lived in some other city far away from home in a school.She visited her mother for a few times.Her mother was always apprensive that someday they would have to leave their houses.She was afraid they might have to lose all their belongings.The narrator lived in a small room for rent.The windows were always covered,the bread seemed tasteless.The threat of death loomed large.After Liberation,the narrator faced many difficulties too. Her mother had already given away much of their belongings to Mrs.Dorling in the fear of losing their valuables. However, after the war, Mrs.Dorling did not give them the things she has shifted to her house.

3)The narrator remembered the address her mother had told her only once. It was Number 46, Marconi Street where Mrs.Dorling lived.She was an old acquaintance of Mrs.S and had shifted much of the valuable belongings the narrator's family owned. After her mother's death,she had the urge to visit her mother's acquaintance to claim the belongings. She went to Mrs.Dorling house and found that Mrs.Dorling had no intention of returning the things. Those objects book the memory of old times. However, those things had lost the value because her mother had passed away in between all these. She resolved to forget the address and decided to move on in life.

4)The war creates many difficulties and unpleasant situations for humans. The human predicament that follows war is amply illustrated through the story "The Address". The narrator experiences various difficulties in midst of the war. She lost her dear mother. After the war,she went to an old acquaintance of her mother who had stored all their valuables during the war years. However, Mrs.Dorling the acquaintance, pretended not to recognise her and didn't return the valuables. Mrs.Dorling represents those people in the society who are callous,greedy and insensitive.

πŸ“πŸ“πŸ“
Disclaimer:
No part of this publication may be reproduced,stored in a retrieval system of transmitted,in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical,photocopying,recording or otherwise without the prior permission of the publisher.

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Wednesday, July 21, 2021

We're not afraid to die....if We can all be together;NCERT Solutions and Summary for Class 11

"We're not afraid to die....if We can all be
 together"
                                               -Gordon Cook and                                                         Alan East
Text:
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Please tap on the image once to get a more sharper and legible copy of the book. 

Summary:
The story "We're not afraid to die....if we can all be together" by Gordon Cook and Alan East.The story is actually the account of a crew on a ship set for sailing around the world.It revolves around a storm which had caught the crew when they were very far in the sea.

In July,1976,the author along with his wife Mary,son Jonathan and daughter Suzanne set sail from Plymouth,England to go for a journey around the world.The couple had always longed to sail and they had spent a significant amount of time in honing their seafaring skills.They also had their own boat called Wavewalker which was profesionally designed to withstand the rough waters.

The first leg their planned three-year journey passed pleasantly as they sailed down the west coast of Africa to Cape Town.Before heading East,they also had two new crewman named Larry Vigil and Herb Siegler.They were their to tackle one of the world's roughest seas i.e. the southern Indian Ocean.

As they were going into the deep seas,the sea was starting to become more rough and wild.
They were encountering strong gales and gigantic waves.The weather was gradually changing for the worse.

At dawn on 2nd January,the waves seemed like behemoths.The ship was sailing at a moderate pace.Then,the disaster came.Huge waves were hitting the ship which was rolling like a rag doll.They took all the necessary precautions for the impending doom.At around 6 P.M,the wind dropped and the sky grew dark.It was actually a gigantic wave with a frightful breaking crest.This wave threw the narrator into the waves.For a moment,he had accepted his death.

However, somehow he found the wheel,lined up the stern for the next wave and hung on.He didn't dare to investigate.The front hatch opened suddenly and her wife stated that decks in the lower part of the 'Wavewalker' were smashed.Reaching there,he could already see the mess they were in.The entire foundation of their boat was crumbling.However,with makeshift repairs,they still managed to move forward.They were also not getting any replies to their radio messages as well.The experience was horrible for them.Their only hope between all these destruction was an island named Ile Amsterdam,was a French scientific base where they could possibly reinforce their ship.

On 4th of January,after 36 hours of continuous pumping,they had successfully reduced the water level significantly.But the weather again began to deteriorate and by the dawn of January 5,their situation was once again desperate.When the narrator went to see his children,his son asked them if they were going to die.He went on to say that he is afraid to die if he was with his sister and parents.This statement gave him new determination to fight with the sea and make it to the island anyhow.But,eventually he and his wife were distressed and thought that their end was near.

But,the almighty had something different in box for them.The narrator did some nautical calculations.They had to find an island 65-kilometer wide in that huge expanse of sea.Their hope was very small but at that moment his daughter gave him a card expressing her love for her parents.This again made him more strong mentally  to fight these rough waters.

After a bit of sailing,at about 2 P.M,he asked Larry to steer 185 degrees to get to the island.He went to get a small nap.He had very little hope about finding the island.His children woke him up and surprised him.They told him that they had successfully found the island.He rushed out and saw the island.For them,it seemed the prettiest island the world.

The story conveys an important message.Life offers us various challenges when we are face-to-face with death-like situations.However,we must not lose our confidence and hope in such situations.If we are optimistic about finding a solution and overcoming the odds,one will always be successful.These lines may seem like a clichè.But,these things are pretty hard to apply in our daily lives.


Difficult Words:
1)Honing:To refine or perfect a certain skill.
2)Seafaring skill:The skill of travelling the seas                                  with all the  necessary skills.
3)Wooden-Hulled:A wooden body or frame of                                     the ship which is most of the                                  times immersed in water.
4)Leg:(Here)A part of a journey.
5)Mast:A tall,slim tower usually placed upwards used for support.
6)Storm Jib:A triangular staysail set forward of                         the mast to use in high wind. 
7) Mooring Rope:A rope used to hold a boat in                                    place.
8)Stern:The back or aft-most part of a ship or                    boat.
9)Life-Raft Drill:A practice of using the life-raft                                 mockingly. 
10)Donned:Put on or were.
11)Oilskins:A heavy cotton-cloth waterproofed                        with oil.
12)Impending:A forthcoming event about to                                 happen, usually in a negative                                   sense. 
13)Ominous:Threatningly inauspicious.
14)Torrent:A strong and fast-moving stream of                       water or other liquid.
15)Taut:Tensed
16)Scrambled:Make one's way quickly up a                                   steep gradient.
17)Starboard:The side of the ship on which the                            ship is steered.
18)Sloshed:Move irregularly with a splashing                             sound.
19)Wrenched:Pulled or twisted suddenly with                              violence.
20)Dinghies:A small boat usually for safety or                            recreational purposes.
21)Chartroom:A room in a ship where charts are                           discussed upon.
22)Mayday:(Here)An international radio distress                       signal used by ships.
23)Pinpricks:(Here)A very small area of land.
24)Respite:A short period of relief from                                    something unpleasant. 
25)Knots:A unit of speed i.e. one nautical mile                     per hour.
26)Paraffin:A waxy,white or colourless solid.
27)Planks:A timber that is flat and rectangular                      used for support.
28)Sextant:A navigational instrument used to                          measure distance.
29)Caricatures:A picture where characteristics                              are depicted for comical purpose.
30)Tousled:Untidy hair.
31)Bleak piece: Lacking vegetation and exposed                              to the elements of nature.
32)Blood Clot:A clump of world.
33)Capsizing:To be overturned in water.


About Author:
Gordon Cook(1978) is a Canadian by nationality.He is also a two-time Olympic sailor.Hr sails for the Royal Canadian Yacht Club.

Alan East has extensive experience as a litigator,manager,legal trainer apart from a veteran sailor.He specialises in Criminal Litigation and Prison Law.

NCERT Questions:
A)Understanding the Text.
1)i)In order to protect the ship from rough waether,the captain decided to slow it down.So,he dropped the storm jib and lashed heavy mooring rope in a loop across the ship.Then,all the crew member fastened everything and went through their life-raft drill.

ii)Larry and Herb, along with the captain started pumping out water from Wavewalker. The captain stretched canvas and secured waterproof hatch covers across the gaping holes. Moreover,they also found that both of their hand pumps were damaged which let the water rise to alarming levels. However,they found another pump which helped them pump out water.

2)On January 4,the voyages felt relieved after 36 hours of perpetual toil and difficulties. They have their meal in almost two days. However, this respite was short lived as black clouds were again building up and their situation was again deteriorating.They under great mental stress.

3)The first section describes a peaceful journey from Plymouth to 105000 km away in Cape Town. In this leg of the voyage,the narrator is brimming with confidence and is also relaxed. This can be subtitle as "Cheerful Voyage".

The second section describes the hardships and the troubles they had to face as they entered the Indian Ocean.They faced gigantic waves along with sinking ship.However,with utmost courage,they face these disasters and come out successfully.This part can be sub-titled as "Facing the Torrent".

The third section is about finding the island which would allow them to reinforce their damaged ship. The captain exuded confidence and strength full stop by the next evening,they had got to the island. At that moment coma the narrator is relaxed and happy. This part can be subtitled as "Searching the Island-Their only hope".

B)Talking about the Text.
1)There is a stark difference between how the adults reacted to the trouble and how the children reacted. The adults were under a lot of mental stress and gradually losing hope with each wave hitting the ship.They took all the necessary precautions in order to deal with the disaster. The crewman i.e. Larry and Herb also tirelessly work in order to ensure their ship doesn't sink. The children suffered all these without a single complain. They kept the adults' spirits high and even reassure them that they were not afraid to die if they are all together.

2)The story clearly countries that optimism can certainly help to endure the direst of situations. The behaviour and attitude of the voyagers illustrates this as they bravely faced the storm.The two crewman-Larry and Herb worked for almost 36 hours regularly to pump water out of the ship.They remained strong during all these.The captain also played a pivotal role in riding out the ship from the storm. He didn't worry about the loss of equipment and used whatever was available.His wife stayed at the wheel for the crucial hours too.

3)Hazardous experiences may bring us face to face with death what the important as many lessons which help us to move ahead in life fast. These challenges are thrown by life at us but we must face the challenges bravely. The challenges prepare us for the difficulties we will be facing in our lives. Life is not easy but at the same time we must react to these dangers with patience and fortitude. Adversity is the true test of character.These adversities bring out the best in us and with self confidence and resourcefulness,we can overcome all these disasters.Others can also get inspired from these people.

4)Man is adventurous by nature.The quest for thrill along with curiosity can take man far away. There is a certain kind of thrill and excitement involved in exploring far of lands or undertaking long voyages. They might fail sometimes but at the end they make fresh attempts with renewed zeal and overcome the odds. Success in adventurous expedition brings you fame and wealth not only materially but also mentally.

C)Thinking about Language.
1)In my native language i.e. 'Odia' has many words which are the English equivalents of the word 'storm'.Some of them are- 'Jhada'(ଝ଑଼),'Batya'(ବା଀୍ୟା) et cetera.

2)The Odia equivalent of the word 'Ship' are called as -'Jahaj'(ଜାΰ¬Ήାଜ).

3)The word 'catamaran' is derived from the Tamil language where it means 'tied wood'.It is a type of boat with twin hulls in parallel.

4)Yes,such songs are often heard in coastal villages.These songs call upon sailors to set out and explore the sea and its rich wealth.These songs are full of inspiration and provide moral support to the sad and disappointed boatmen.

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Thursday, July 15, 2021

A Triumph of Surgery;NCERT Solutions and Summary for Class 10

                  A Triumph of a Surgery
                                                    -James Herriot
Text:
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Summary:
The story "A Triumph of Surgery" revolves 
around a pet dog named Tricki who had suddenly fattened a lot and his owner 
Mrs.Pumphrey.The narrator isa veterinarian doctor who helped Tricki in losing his fats and gaining back his original size.

One day,while going through a street,the narrator saw Tricki on the pavement.He was very shocked to see his appearance as he had suddenly become hugely fat.His eyes were bloodshot and rheumy and his tongue lolled from his jaws.

Her mistress explained the narrator that from the last few days that he seemed to be  listless and having no energy.Because of that she has been giving him some extra small food between the meals.She also had to relent and gave him the sweeets he craved for.

The narrator felt sorry for Tricki.The pet dog would always eat what was given to him irrespective of the time.The narrator also found that he was n't given proper exercise.The narrator also warned he must be forbidden from eating the sweets and other delicacies.

Soon,Mrs.Pumphrey called the narrator and told her about Tricki's odd behaviour.He refused to eat anything and had bouts of vomiting.He didn't want to do anything.The narrator had earlier predicted these and he immediately left to fetch him.The only way to cure Tricki was to get him out of the house for a while.

Tricki lived in the surgery for a few days in order to get completely healed.The narrator took a firm approach to heal Tricki.He gave him a lot of water rather than food.Within a few days,he was starting to show interest in his surroundings.He was given little medicinal treatment but a lot of physical activity as well as mixing with the other dogs.

All this while Mrs.Pumphrey called a dozen times a day to inquire about Tricki and his health.The narrator didn't delve into the details and just told her that he was out of danger and was convalescing rapidly.In order to facilitate the speedy recovery and improve her pet’s strength, she started sending fresh eggs. To enrich his blood, she sent wine and brandy. Herriot and his partners at the surgery
were very much surprised at the lavish supply,
and they enjoyed themselves with all these
supplements during their meals.

After some days,he told Mrs.Pumphrey that her dog Tricki had completely recovered and was awaiting collection.This made Mrs.Pumphrey quite satisfied and immediately reached to fetch it.

The narrator went inside the surgery and fetched him.Upon seeing Mrs.Pumphrey,he took off from the narrator's arms and sailed into Mrs.Pumphrey's arms.Mrs.Pumphrey generously thanked him and told him that this was 'a triumph of the surgery'.

Difficult Words:
1)Bloated:(Here)Excessive in size or amount.
2)Rheumy:A watery discharge from a mucous membrane especially of the nose or eyes.
3)Lolled:(of a part of the body) Hang loosely.
4)Hastened:Be quick to do something
5)Tackle:Make determined efforts to deal
6)Lumbago:Muscular pain in the lower part of the back.
7)Ring-Throwing:The ring-throwing is an activity involving animals or humans after a ring is being thrown.
8)Regime:A system or ordered way of doing things.
9)Drooping:Cause to bend or hang downwards.
10)Fortnight:A period of 14 days or 2 weeks.
11)Swooned: A partial or total loss of consciousness.
12)Roused:Cause to stop sleeping.
13)Kick:(Here)No power.
14)Surgery:A place where a doctor, dentist, or other medical practitioner treats or advises patients.
15)Sniffing:Characterized by or resembling the sound of air being drawn in audibly through the nose.
16)Trotted:Run at a moderate pace with short steps.
17)Slopped:Spill or flow over the edge of a containe
18)Headlong:In a rush.
19)Scrimmages:A rough and confused struggle.
20)Tramped on:Tread on and crush.
21)Hovered:Linger close at hand, especially in a hesitant or uncertain manner.
22)Convalescing:To recover rapidly.
23)Reverently:With deep and solemn respect.
24)Lithe:Thin, supple, and graceful.
25)Hard-Muscled:Fit and strong.
26)Jostling:Struggle or compete forcefully for.
27)Swarmed:Move somewhere in large numbers.
28)Bouts: A short period of intense activity of a specified kind.
29)Tweed:A rough-surfaced woolen cloth.
30)Harness:A set of straps and fittings.

About Author:
James Alfred Wight, better known by his pen name James Herriot(1916-1995),was a British veterinary surgeon and author.In addition to the books, there have been several television and film adaptations of Wight's books, including the 1975 film All Creatures Great and Small and the BBC television series of the same name, which ran 90 episodes.

NCERT Solutions:
A)Think about it.
1)The narrator,James Herriot,was a wonderful person.He went out of his way to help others.He was a intelligent man but was also full of common sense which made him wise.He always made sure that he handled every situation coming on his way effectively and tactfully.

2)Tricki was indeed happy to go home.Nobody dislikes coming to home and he was no exception.I think that Tricki will be healthy and fit after that and Mrs.Pumphrey would mend her ways for the good of everyone.

3)In my opinion,it is a real-life episode.There are many instances around us of such situations where because of over-indulgent pampering sort of attitude has destroyed children as they keep demanding for more.Moreover,such attitude is usually seen in affluent people living like Mrs.Pumphrey.

B)Talk about it.
1)Those sort of people are usually sillya and their intentions are not bad.However,their over-indulgent attitude can turn into an issue for some people and may result in their harm.

2)Their are parents in our society and circles who love their children unconditionally and fulfill all the wishes of their children.This results in a creation of an attitude in the students which can result in loss in the long run.

3)i)I would have warned Mrs.Pumphrey that such an attitude can prove to be detrimental to Tricki.I would try to make her understand the situation Tricki would be in if she persisted her attitude.

ii)I would have told Mrs.Pumphrey that she should immediately bring some changes in Tricki's lifestyle and diet otherwise it would prove harmful for Tricki.

By looking at Mrs.Pumphrey's dilemma, I would have tried to bring the necessary changes in my life as well in order to avoid the consequences.

4)I would have also taken tje same approach as the narrator and tried to cut down on the intake of Tricki's food.I would have ensured that he gets enough physical activity to stay fit and healthy.


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Friday, July 9, 2021

My Mother at Sixty-Six;NCERT Solutions and Summary for Class 12

                    My Mother at Sixty-Six
                                             -Kamala Das
Text:
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Summary:
"My Mother at Sixty-Six" by Kamala Das is a brief portrayal of her sudden realization that her mother has grown old and may leave her forever soon.The poet shares her feelings through the poem.


Stanza-#1:"Driving from .... but soon"

Once the poet had went to visit her mother.While  returning,she was on her way to the airport to catch a flight back to Cochin.She saw her mother beside her.Her mother was already fast asleep.Her ageing face was smoky in colour like ash and this made the poet think about her mother.While sleeping,her mouth was wide open and she resembled a dead body.The poet realised that her mother was already old.She was pained to see her like that and felt genuine sympathy for her.She could already comprehend that her mother needed love,affection and care.However,all this made her feel gloomy and for a change in mood,she looked out of the car window.

Stanza-#2:"put that .... few yards"

In order to come out of her gloom,the poet shifted her glance and looked out of the car's window.There she saw young trees which seemed like sprinting at a fast pace.She also saw many little children running out of their houses into the playgrounds.All these were in deep contrast to the fact that her mother was rapidly ageing with every passing day.The young trees and children symbolised energy,life and happiness while her mother was listless and pale.While she was in deep thought,they had already reached the airport.At the airport security check,when the poet was about to leave,she glanced at her mother.

Stanza-#3:"away,I .... and smile......"

Her mother appeared weak just like the moon in the winter season which seems to have lost all its strength and glory.She again felt that familiar ache and that fear of losing her dear mother like in her childhood days.As a child,she was always very apprehensive that her mother may leave her at any point of time.At this point of time in life,her fears were just going to materialize as her mother was about to die soon.However,she didn't unveil her feelings and stayed strong.She smiled and bid her farewell soon.She told her that she would be seeing her soon.She wanted her mother to live long so that they could meet each other.

Difficult Words:
1)Doze:A short and light sleep.
2)Ashen:(Here) Very pale.
3)Corpse:A dead body.
4)Sprinting:(Here)To grow rapidly.
5)Spilling:(Here)Moving out in great numbers.
6)Wan:Unnaturally pale,as from physical or emotional distress.
7)Ache:Pain.

Rhyme Scheme:
Free Verse

Poetic Devices:
1)Simile:"face ashen like a corpse"
               "as a late winter's moon"
2)Personification:"trees sprinting"
3)Repetition:"smile and smile and smile"
4)Metaphor:"children spilling"

For the definition of these literary devices,please visit our blog:

About Author:
Kamala Das, popularly known as 'Madhavikutty' was an Indian post in English as well as in Malayalam. She was born on 31st of March in 1934 and died on 31st of May in 2009.Her popularity in Kerela is based chiefly on her short stories but at the same time she was a widely read columnist and wrote on various social stories such as women, children and politics among others.

NCERT Questions:
A)Think it out.
1)The emotional pain and ache the poet feels is due to the realization that her mother has gone old and has become frail and pale like a corpse. Any moment she could leave for her heavenly abode. She is deeply pained to see her mother who had already lost all her enthusiasm and energy for life.

2)The young trees are personified in the poem. As the poet was travelling in the car along with her mother, the trees seemed to move in the opposite direction with a rapid pace. To the poet's eyes, they are full of energy and enthusiasm whereas her mother was asleep with her mouth wide open as a corpse. The movement of the trees is in stark contrast with the stillness associated with the mother.

3)The poet highlights the helplessness and fraility of old age with the help of contrasts.Her mother dozed off with her mouth wide open completely still.In a striking contrast to this, the children come out in large numbers from their houses to play, signify movement,energy and enthusiasm.

4)The poet compares her mother to the late winter's moon which is dull and shrouded in order to highlight her listlessness and lack of enthusiasm Like the winter moon wans away, the phrase symbolizes the ebbing away of life. This highlights the fact that her end is approaching fast.

5)The parting words 'see you soon Amma' used by the poet to reassure herself as she was of the opinion that her mother's end is approaching fast. The poet has already accepted the reality yet she keeps up her smile to make her seem strong.The poet has used 'repetition' as a literary device as putting this brave front requires a lot of effort.

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Wednesday, July 7, 2021

Fire and Ice;NCERT Solutions and Summary for Class 10

                                                                                                                     Fire and Ice
                                         - Robert Frost

                                           
Text:
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Summary:
The poem "Fire and Ice" by Robert Frost talks and discusses at length why and how the world will perish.The concept he debates here is how the world will perish.It is centered around the theme of "apocalypse".

The poet thinks that the world would perish due to fire.In the poem,"Fire" signifies deep rooted desire,avarice and lust.The poet thinks that these will definitely destroy the world completely.

However,at the same time,he thinks that if the world had to perish twice,"Ice"would be the reason.In the poem,"Ice" signifies human hatred, indifference,insensitivity and coldness.He thinks "Ice" as a driving force would also be sufficient as to devastate the world.

Difficult Words:
1)Tasted:Experienced.
2)Perish:Destroy.
3)Suffice:To be sufficient.

Rhyme Scheme:
abaa bcbcb

Poetic Devices:
1)Metaphor:The whole poem where "Fire" and                             "Ice" signifies other human vices.
2)Alliteration:'the world will','some say' and                                       'favour fire' are some examples of                                 alliteration in  the poem.
For the definition of these literary devices,please visit our blog:

About Author:
Robert Lee Frost (March 26, 1874 – January 29, 1963) was an American poet.Known for his realistic depictions of rural life,he was honored frequently during his lifetime and is the only poet to receive four Pulitzer Prizes for Poetry.

NCERT Questions:
A) Thinking about the Poem.

1)There are myraid ways predicting the end of the world.Apocalypse can come in the form of "Fire" or "Ice" Anything which is created must end to give a pathway for the next.Recent climate changes are evident of the the fact that
much of our land is going to be submerged in the water in the near future.All these are pretty scary but we still have not changed and to carry out activities which are destroying our climate.

2)In the poem,"Fire" signifies greed,lust,cruelty,avarice,conflict and fury.On the other hand,"Ice" signifies intolerance, rigidity, insensitivity,coldness,indifference and hatred.According to the poet,these human vices will lead to the destruction of the world.

3)The rhyme scheme is "abaa" for stanza 1 and "bcbcb" for stanza 2.It helps in bringing out the contrasting ideas substantially.It also helps the readers to relate and make the poem sound good.

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Dust of Snow;NCERT Solutions and Summary for Class 10

                              Dust of Snow 
                                             -Robert Frost
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Summary:
The poem 'Dust of Snow' by Robert Frost illustrates how not a single element of nature can bring bad luck to anyone.

One day when he was sad and gloomy sitting beneath a hemlock tree,a crow moved a little and flew away making some snow fall on the poet.

This act gave his mood a change and he lightens up.All his gloominess suddenly disappeared and faded away.He tried to prove that how nature or any element of nature can never be a bad omen for anyone.Nature can provide one the much needed solace and brighten up during the despairing times in one's life.

The poem also gives us the message that insignificant and unimportant things also matter in our life.For instance,an insignificant thing like the snow has given the poet a change so significant.The 'dust of snow' was adequate to lift his mood and he was delightful again.

Difficult Words:
1)Rued:Held in regret
2)Hemlock:A poisonous plant with sma white flowers.
3)Dust of Snow:The fine particles or flakes of snow.

Rhyme Scheme:
abab cdcd

Poetic Devices:
1)Alliteration:"Has given my heart"
                       "And saved some part"
2)Inversion:Stanza 1 where the poet changes                           structure of the sentences.
3)Assonance:"Shook down on me" Here,"O"                                   sound has prominent.
4)Enjambment:Used throughout the poem.

For the definition of these literary devices,please visit our blog:

About Author:
Robert Lee Frost (March 26, 1874 – January 29, 1963) was an American poet.Known for his realistic depictions of rural life,he was honored frequently during his lifetime and is the only poet to receive four Pulitzer Prizes for Poetry.

NCERT Questions:
A)Thinking about the poem.   

1)"Dust of Snow" on the surface means powdery kind of snow but metaphorically means the insignificant things in life.However,the falling of the small dusts of snow on the poet by the movement of the crow changed his mood.He was gloomy and sad but after this,he was cheered up and his sadness was faded.

2)a)Birds like Cuckoo,Nightingle et cetera are usually found to be mentioned in poems due to the virtue of their singing.No,crows are not generally mentioned in poems or any other form of writing.
Crows are ugly and we in our minds have associated crows with bad omen.

2)b)"a hemlock tree" means a poisonous tree associated with toxicity but metaphorically means a bad symbol.The poet could have mentioned of a more 'beautiful' tree but he intently doesn't do so.He did as to prove his statement that no element of  nature is harmful or unfortunate.

2)c)The "crow" and "hemlock" represent sorrow and ill-fatedness.The "dust of snow" stands for the insignificant things in life.The poet by the means of this poem tries to convince his readers that how even the most insignificant and things associated with negativity and bad luck can conjure up to be something so cheerful and joyous.

3)There has been many phases in my life when I have felt depressed. One instance  was when I was in high school.That day my NTSE result had come out and I had not been able to make it to the provisional list of candidates selected for Level-2.
I was very upset that despite putting some much time for the exam,I was not able to qualify the exam.But then suddenly, my teacher whom I had cursed in my head,came to me and reassured me.The moment was very soothing for me.The same person whom I had thought to be a bad omen for me was there at my crisis providing me the much needed solace.

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A Letter to God;NCERT Solutions and Summary for Class 10

                            A Letter to God
                                               - G.L. Fuentes

Text:
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Summary:
This is a story set in Latin America.The central character in the story is Lencho.He is a farmer who barely earns enough to make both ends meet.However,he has unshakeable faith in God.
The story is centered around the fact how much faith a man vests in the Almighty.

Lencho farmed corn in his cropland.In order to get a good harvest,every crop needs water.However,his field were deprived of rain for a long time.He prayed for a little shower if not a downpour for his fields.His prayers were perhaps heard and the shower of rain came.However,soon it changed into a hailstorm and devastating all of Lencho's crops.The field looked like as if it was covered with salt.Not a single crop was left untouched as everything was rendered devastated.

That night everybody was upset.Their was only one hope in all their hearts,that was help from God.

That night Lencho thought deeply.His only hope in this depressing time was God.Next,he did the impossible.He wrote a letter to God.In the letter,he described his dilemma and asked for a hundred pesos so that he could sustain his family till he gets the next harvest.

He himself went to the town to send the letter.He affixed a stamp and dropped the letter  in the mailbox.He had written "To God" on the envelope.

When the postmaster got hold of the letter,he was amazed at the amount of faith the man had in God.He didn't want the man's faith in the Lord to be faded.He decided to give a response to the letter.The postmaster gave a part of his salary,asked his friends to donate,and even his employees donated for the cause.Instead of all of this,he could only raise seventy pesos.

Next week,Lencho visited the post office again.He was handed a letter by the postman.Lencho was not all surprised.His confidence in God was huge.But he became agitated when he counted the money.He again wrote a letter and posted it.

When the postmaster again saw the letter,he was astonished.In the letter,Lencho explained how he had only got seventy pesos.He had asked for the rest but however he had told God not to send it by mail.He described that the post office employees were a bunch of crooks!

Difficult Words:
1)Crest:Top part of something.
2)Downpour:A heavy fall of rain.
3)Regarded:Pay attention to; Heed.
4)Hailstones:A pellet of hail.
5)Hillside:The sloping side of a hill.
6)Plague:A collective noun.
7)Solitary:Isolated
8)Correspondence:Communication
9)Goodwill:Friendly, helpful, or cooperative feelings or attitude.
10)Resolution:A firm decision to do something.
11)Pesos:A currency in circulation in Latin America and some parts of Asia.
12)Affixed:Stick, attach, or fasten something to something else.
13)Fist: A person's hand when the fingers are bent in towards the palm and held there tightly, typically in order to strike a blow or grasp something.
14)Mailbox: A public box in which letters and packages are placed to be collected and sent out.
15)Locusts:Insects which usually destroy crops.

About Author:
Gregorio LΓ³pez Fuentes was a Mexican novelist, poet, and journalist. He was one of the leading chroniclers of the Mexican RevolutionLater on, he became a teacher of literature at a school in Mexico City.His first success was Campamento (Encampment) in 1931.[1] This was followed by Tierra (Earth) in 1932, a novel about the Mexican revolutionary Emiliano Zapata and ¡Mi general! (My General!)

NCERT Questions:
A)Thinking about the Text.
1)Lencho had complete faith in God.He wa always confident that God would help him.The sentences "It was nothing less than a letter to God"."The following Sunday Lencho came a bit earlier" is also evident of the fact that Lencho believed in God.

2)The postmaster sent the money to Lencho because he didn't want the man's faith who had writen this letter wane in God.He even signed it with 'God' as he wanted that the man should realise that God has provided him with assistance.

3)Lencho never made any attempts to find out who had sent the money to him because he had huge faith in God.He was quite certain that God would see his despairing situation and help him.

4)When Lencho received seventy pesos instead of the hundred he had requested,he became disappointed.He thought that the rest of the money was looted by the post office employees.
The irony in the situation was that the post office employees had actually helped the farmer.However,he was under the impression that the post office employees were a bunch of crooks.

5)I think there are very less people in this world who are like Lencho.Usually,they don't have such huge faith in God.The appropriate word should be 'naive'.

6)These conflicts in the story have been beautifully illustrated by the author.
•The first conflict was when Lencho had expected that the shower will irrigate his fields.So that,he could have got a good harvest.But the opposite happened when the rain changed to hailstorm.It completely destroyed his crops.
The second conflict was when Lencho calls the post office employees a bunch of crooks.He thought that they had robbed his money which was sent by God.On the contrary, actually they were the ones who had gone out of their ways to help him in his crisis.

B) Thinking about Language.
1)Cyclone
2)Gale
3)Typhoon
4)Tornado
5)Hurricane
6)Whirlwind

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Super Notes for Liquid Solutions

This post contains" SUPER NOTES " for the Chapter Liquid Solutions .This is quite important chapter from JEE as well as Class 12 B...