Friday, February 11, 2022

Indigo; NCERT Solutions and Summary for Class 12

                                              -Louis Fischer
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The author had first met Gandhi in the year 1942 at his ashram in Sevagram.Gandhiji had told him he initiated the departure of the British forces from India.He recalled that he had visited Champaran in 1917 at the sincere request of a sharecropper named Rajkumar Shukla.

Actually,Gandhiji had gone to Lucknow to attend the annual meeting of the Indian National Congress in 1916.There he met Shukla who had come all the way from Champaran.He seeked his help in order to safeguard the economic interests of the sharecroppers.Gandhiji told Shukla that he was busy but Shukla was insistent.He accompanied him to various places until Gandhiji agreed to come with him.

His firm will impressed Gandhiji a lot and he promised Shukla that he would be in Calcutta on a particular date and then Shukla could come and take him to Champaran.After meeting each other in Calcutta,they boarded a train from for Patna.There,they went to the house of a lawyer named Rajendra Prasad who went on to become the first President of independent India.However,Mr.Prasad was not at home.

In order to get a more unbiased and comprehensive image of the entire scenario,Gandhiji along with Shukla reached Muzzafarnagar on 15th April,1917.He was given a warm welcome by Professor J.B. Kriplani and his students.He was literally surprised to see such support for an advocate of "Swadesh"  like him in the rural localities too.

He met some lawyers who were already handling cases of the sharecroppers and peasants.As per their explanation,the contract stated that 15% of the peasants' land holding was to be reserved for the cultivation of Indigo,the crop of which the landlords were paid a rent.The system was indeed very oppressive and Gandhi wanted to help these sharecroppers.He visited the British Landlord Association  but was denied any sort of information because he was an outsider.He went to the commissioner of Tirhut division who threatened Gandhiji and asked him to leave Tirhut immediately.

But,it was not easy to shatter Gandhiji's adamant vision of helping the sharecroppers.Instead of returning,he went to Motihari.There he started gathering more information on the Indigo contract.He was also soon extended support from many lawyers who believed in the cause.

One day when he was on his way to meet a peasant who was maltreated by Indigo planters,he was stopped by the Police Superintendent messenger and served him with a notice that asked Gandhi to leave.But,Gandhi disobeyed the order.A case was filed against him.Many lawyers came to advise him but when he stressed,all of them joined his struggle and even consented to go to jail.

On the day of the trial,a large crowd gathered near the court.It became impossible to handle them but Gandhiji calmed them down and helped the officers control the mob.In his statement,he said that he was not at all a law breaker but disobeyed the notice knowingly so that he could help out the peasants.The judgement was made in favour of Gandhi where he was granted bail and later on the case against him was also dropped.

Now,again he and his associates tried their level best to conduct more data and information about the Indigo contract and its blatant misuse.A commission was formed to look into this matter.

An inquiry was conducted and the planters were found guilty and asked to pay back to the peasants.They offered only 25% of the amount but Gandhi accepted this offer because this freed the peasants from the binding Indigo contract.

Gandhiji also denied permission to Andrews,a peacemaker, to make an ashram in Champaran because he wanted Indians to be self-reliant.At the end,he told that the Champaran event left a lasting impression on him.He felt that he didn't need permission from anyone to do anything good while living in his own country.

Difficult Words:
i) Emaciated:Thin.
ii)Sharecroppers:A tenant farmer who gives a                                    part of each crop as rent.
iii)Cawnpore:British name for "Kanpur".
v)Yeoman:A man who cultivates a small piece of land.
vi)Arable:Land which is suitable for farming.
ix)Multitude:A large number of people.
x)Pronounce:(Here)To declare or announce.
xi)Reconvened:To start again after a small break.
xiii)Entrety:An earnest or humble request.
xiv)Abstractions:Something which exists only                                    as an idea.

About Author:
Louis Fischer (1896-1970) was born in Philadelphia.He served as a volunteer in the British Army between 1918-1920.Later on,he made a career as a journalist and wrote for The NY Times,The Saturday Review and for European and Asian publications.He was also a faculty member in the University of Princeton.

NCERT Questions:
A)Understanding the Text.

1)The Champaran event left a lasting impression in Gandhi's mind.He had solved the various problems faced by peasants and sharecroppers.They were relieved from the oppression they were facing for a long time because of the planters and the landlords.Thousands of people flocked out to support Gandhiji in this noble cause.The Champaran Movement is an important as it transformed Gandhi into a national figure.He was very clear that no outsider should instruct him or his countrymen about what to do and how to do it.

2)Gandhiji was always a good leader.He asked various lawyers about the ways by which they had helped the peasants.He listened them and tried his best to understand the plight of the sharecroppers.He made them realise their duty towards the farmers.They became so influenced by him that they were also ready to go behind the bars with Gandhiji.

3)During the Indian freedom struggle,most average Indians living in smaller localities feared to support the advocates of "Swadesh" as it that they were directly going against the British government. These people refrained from participating in any political demonstration or protests. However,in Champaran, the support Gandhiji got from the locals was very amazing. It was surprising for Gandhiji that Professor 
Malkani allowed him to stay at his house even though he was a government servant.

4)Along with the freedom fighters, ordinary people also contributed to the freedom movement extensively. This can also be observed by the following instances:

A large no. of students accompanied Prof. J.B. Kriplani to welcome Gandhi at Muzaffarnagar Railway Station.
A large no. of peasants also came to see him by foot.
To show support for Gandhi,a large no. of people also demonstrated around the courtroom.

B)Talking about the Text.

1)Poor people in the corners of India are slowly getting justice and empowered. But, one of the truth which still observed in these deprived sections of the society is that this still have a certain sense of fear from the the upper classes of the society. This can be attributed to the colonial times when the poor people fear the government authorities. This is what is needed that we must remove this element of fear from the minds of the people.

2)It is rightly said that bad team can come out victorious if it is having a good captain. A good leader is a person who gives credit to his team members but great leader is the one who does all the work in the background and takes credit for it. He continuously motivates his team members to become better version of themselves and takes care of everyone.

No part of this publication may be reproduced,stored in a retrieval system of transmitted,in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical,photocopying,recording or otherwise without the prior permission of the publisher.

#Hey!This is an in-depth piece of genuine writing by EduRankers' team.There may be some inadvertent typing mistakes.Please report and we will definitely get back to you.Ask your queries in the comments section.Keep hustling!


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