Thursday, August 19, 2021

The Ailing Planet:the Green Movement's Role's NCERT Solutions and Summary for Class 11

   The Ailing Planet : the Green Movement's Role
                                                        -Nani Palkhiwala
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The text is actually an article written by Nani Palkhiwala published in The Indian Express on 24th November,1994.He has highlighted some important points regarding the declining health of our Earth which have relevance till now.The writer has also highlighted our responsibility towards the environment.

The narrator has thrown light on how the Green Movement's since its beginning has gripped the imagination of the entire mind kind.In 1972,the world's first nationwide green party was founded in New Zealand.

The movement has enabled people to shift their hopes from the mechanistic view to a holistic and ecological view.The narrator thinks this shift
in perceptions is quite revolutionary as people  have started acknowledging Earth as a living being of whiclh they are small elements.The Earth has its own metabolic needs and vital processes which need to be respected and preserved.It is our duty to improve the Earth.

The narrator has also highlighted studies, surveys and other reports which conclude that we are deteriorating our environment at an alarming pace. Well-known scientists have warned that unless we are not planting trees and growing them we soon have to face a very macabre situation.

In 1987,the term 'Sustainable Development' was coined by the World Commission on Environment and Development. The idea was that development in such a way which fulfills our present needs as well as doesn't compromise with the needs of the future. 

In Zambia,at a zoo,human being are called as 'the most dangerous animal'.Mr. Lester R. Brown in his book has pointed out sensibly that human claims on -fisheries,forests,grasslands,
croplands are reaching an unsustainable level where productivity is eventually impaired.
According to Dr.Meyers,several species of plants and animals will be perished with the cleaning of tropical forests.James Speth,the President of the World Resources Institute,stated how we are losing forests at a rate of acre and a half per second!Article 48A of our Indian Constitution provides that "the State shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wildlife of the country" but these laws have never seen implementation in a proper way.A report in the Parliament has pointed out our forests have depleted at an alarming pace.However,the actual loss of forests is estimated to be about eight times the rate indicated by government statistics.

The narrator thinks that the astronomical increase in the population is one of the major reasons for the exploitation of the environment.It is found in studies that our population is rising by about one million every four days.We must spread awareness among people about the problems which can be caused due to the increase in population.We must educate people about concepts such as family planning.More children does not mean more workers,it merely means more people without food.

We need to see the world as a whole and not as dissociated parts.For the first time,we are seeing a transcending concern where people are not only thinking about their survival but also about the survival of the planet.Mr.Lester Brown has rightly stated,"We hve not inherited this Earth from our forefathers;we have borrowed it from our children."

Difficult Words:
1)Holistic:Characterised by the treatment of the                    whole person or object.
2)Irrevocably:In a way that cannot be changed                           reversed.
3)Steward:People employed to manage or to                           look after something.
4)Stripping:To remove every possible covering 
                    from something.
5)Reckon:Establish by calculation.
6)Languish:To remain in an unpleasant                                      condition.
7)Ignominious:To cause public disgrace or                                      shame.
8)Interalia:Among other things.
9)Impoverished:Made poor.
10)Decimated:To reduce in number.
11)Patrimony:Property inherited from father or                            ancestors.
12)Fertility:The ability to conceive and bear                              children.
13)Beget:Give life to.
14)Sterilised:Deprived of the ability to produce                           offspring.
15)Hutments: Collection of huts.
16)Du Pont:An American company meant for                            making polycarbonates.
18)Freehold:Permanent tenure of land or                                    property.
19)Tenancy: Possession of the land.
20)Lease:A contract based upon which a                               property is rented out.
21)Coercion:By force.

About Author:
Nani Ardeshir Palkhivala(16th January,1920-11th December,2002) was an Indian jurist and liberal economist.He was born in Bombay in a Parsi family.He was an excellent lawyer of his time.He is known for his columns in newspapers airing his concerns over simple yet important issues.

NCERT Questions:
A)Understanding the Text.

1)There are various lines in the text which support the title "The Ailing Planet".Some of these are:
"Are we to leave our successors a scorched planet of advancing deserts,impoverished landscapes and ailing environment?"

"We have not inherited this Earth from our forefathers;we have borrowed it from our childern."

2)The notice "The world's most dangerous animals" at a cage in a zoo at Zambia signifies that man is responsible for all the deterioration in environment and depletion of natural resources.Thus,man is the world's most dangerous animal.

3)The Earth has 4 principal biological systems namely- fisheries,forests,grasslands and croplands.These are depleted by excessive usage.Over-fishing is quite common,forests are being cut to procure firewood,grassland are turning into barren wastelands and croplands are detoriorating as their productivity has been impaired.

4)The growth in global population puts severe strain on the Earth's principal biological systems.Due to excessive human claims,these reach an unsustainable level where their productivity is damaged.Development is not possible with this rapid growth in population.Increasing population brings hunger,poverty and unemployment along with it.

B) Talking about the Text.

1)The truth is harsh and in reality neither respected nor enforced in our nation properly. We have never seriously considered law in India. We are aware of various instances which prove this statement. Almost everyone is conversant with the rule of the road but still there are various cases of over-taking,lane-jumping,over speeding and not wearing helmets. Laws in our nation insist compulsory elementary education upto the age of 14. Yet,we see many teens of this age loitering around in lanes or working in petty jobs. All these laws remain on paper but in actual like these are never put into practice.

2)I fully agree with the view contained in the statement.There is a very high possibility of such an eventuality in our future. There are solid reasons behind this apprehension. Our resources are limited and they will not last indefinitely if we go on consuming them indiscriminatingly. Essential biological elements such as fisheries,forests,grasslands and croplands are the basis of the global economic system.They supply us food,raw materials to the industries and many other useful things. Increasing population has further added to our worries.These system have reached an unsustainable level. Hence, certainly there is possibility of the earth becoming an overheated place full of increasing deserts and poor landscapes.

3)This is a revolutionary statement by Mr.Lester  Brown.It focuses our attention on the position of man in this infinite universe.Often, people in our surroundings take the Earth for granted.They think that they can claim their rights over the Earth as they have inherited it from their forefathers.However,we are only temporary residents here for a few years. We must not strip the natural world of the resources which our he future generations would need. For our need, we are exploiting the natural resources recklessly which may result in severe problems as environmental degradation and others. Our coming generations may not be able to survive if the current rate of environmental degradation continues. We must check the use of these natural resources.

4)Overpopulation can cause various severe problems.The three basic human needs: food,cloth and shelter have assumed alarming prepositions.Our biological elements are over-strained because of this.People resort to over fishing because of protein needs.Forests are being destroyed to obtain firewood.Grasslands are being converted to deserts.Croplands are becoming non-cultivable and barren.Overpopulation hinders development and adversely affects the spread of education and healthcare for the masses.According to the author,more children does not mean more workers,it merely means more people without work.

C) Thinking about Language.

1)Prima Facie:A perception based on first                                     impression.
2)ad hoc:Created or done for a particular                              purpose.
3)in camera:In private without media persons.
4)ad infinitum:Forever.
5)mutatis mutandis:To make some necessary                                          alterations while not                                                   affecting the point at issue.
6)caveat:A notice declaring that certain actions                  may not be taken without informing                       the person who gave the notice.
7)tabula rasa:An absence of preconceived ideas                          or predetermined goals.

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