Friday, July 2, 2021

Literary Devices used broadly in English.

Poetic or literary devices can be defined as a wide range of words arranged in a specific method.These are also known as 'ornaments of poem'.All a poet has with him/her are words via which he/she can convey his/her feelings.These words need to be precisely right on several levels at once such as:

•#SOUNDS of words:
Words or portions of words can be clustered to achieve specific kinds of effects when we hear them or read them.These sounds can strike us as clever and pleasing and sometimes even soothing.

I)Alliteration:Repeated consonant sounds at the beginning of words placed near each other, usually on the same adjacent lines.

II)Assonance:Repeated vowel sounds in words placed near each other,usually on same or adjacent lines.

III)Consonance:Repeated consonant sounds at the ending of words placed near each other, usually on same or adjacent lines.

IV)Cacophony:A discordant series of harsh, unpleasant sounds helps to convey disorder.

V)Euphony:A series of musically pleasant sounds,conveying a sense of beauty to the language.

VI) Onomatopoeia:Words which sound like their meanings.

VII)Repetition:The purposeful re-use of words and phrases for an effect.

VIII)Rhyme:One of the most commonly used literary device,'rhyme' are said to be words that have different beginning sounds but whose endings sound alike, including the final vowel sound and everything following it.

IX)Rhythm:The measured flow of words and phrases in verse or prose as determined by the relation of long and short or stressed or unstressed syllables.

•#MEANINGS of words:
Most words convey several shades of meaning at the same time.It is the poet's job to find words which would be used in relation to others so that the piece of writing would carry the precise intention of thought.

I)Allegory:A representation of an abstract or spiritual meaning.

II)Allusion:A brief reference to some person,historical event,work of art,or Biblical or mythology situation or character.

III)Ambiguity:A word or phrase that can mean more than one thing,even in its context.

IV)Analogy:A comparison,usually something unfamiliar with something familiar.

V)Apostrophe:Speaking directly to a real or imagined listener or inanimate object.

VI)Clichรจ:Any figure of speech that was once clever and original but through overuse has become outdated.

VII)Connotation:It can be defined as the emotional,psychological or social overtones of a word.

VIII)Contrast:Closely arranged things with strikingly different features.

IX)Denotation:It is the dictionary definition of a word.

X)Euphemism:An understatement ,used to lessen the effect of a outrageous statement.

XI)Hyperbole:An outrageous exaggeration used for an effect.

XII)Irony:A contradictory statement or situation to reveal a reality different from what appears to be true.

XIII)Metaphor:A direct comparison between two unlike things.

XIV)Metonymy:A figure of speech in which a person,place or thing is referred to by something closely associated with it.

XV)Oxymoron:A combination of two words which appear to contradict each other.

XVI)Paradox:A statement in which a seeming contradiction may reveal an unexpected truth.

XVII)Personification:A figure of speech concerned with attributing human characteristics to an inanimate object,animal or abstract idea.
XVIII)Pun:A sort of word-play where words with totally different meanings have similar or identical sounds.

XIX)Simile:A direct comparison of two unlike things using words such as 'like' or 'as'.

XX)Symbol:An ordinary object,event,animal or person to which we have attached extraordinary meaning and significance.

XXI)Synecdoche:Indicating a person,object etc by letting only a certain part represent the whole.

•#ARRANGEMENT of words:
Words follow each other in a sequence determined by the poet.In order to discuss the arrangements that result,certain terms have been applied to various aspects of this process of arrangment.These sequences have helped us 
many-a-times to determine nature of poem.

I)Point of View:Also called as 'persona',the author's or poet's point of view concentrates on the vantage point of the speaker.

II)Line: Fundamental to the perception of poetry,'line' can be defined as a series of units that do not necessarily correspond to sentences but rather to a series of metrical feet.

III)Verse:One single line of a poem arranged in a metrical pattern.

IV)Stanza:A division of a poem created by arranging the lines into a unit.It is a cluster of verse.

V)Stanza Forms:It can be defined as the names given to describe the no. of lines in a stanzaic unit.For example,couplet(2),tercet(3),quatrain(4),
quintet(5),sestet(6),septet(7) and octave(8).

VI)Rhetorical Question:A question solely for effect,which does not require an answer.It is a means of achieving an emphasis stronger than a direct statement.

VII)Rhyme Scheme:The pattern established by the arrangement of rhymes in a stanza or poem.For example,abab;abcdabcd.

VIII)Enjambment:The continuation of the logical sense -and therefore the grammatical construction-beyond the end of a line of poetry.

IX)Form:It can be defined as the arrangement or method used to convey the content.

Types of Form:
*Open:A poetic form free from regularity and consistency in elements such as rhyme,line length and metrical form.

*Closed:A poetic form subjected to a fixed structure and pattern.

*Blank Verse:A poetic form where there is no specific rhyme scheme.

*Free Verse:Lines with no prescribed pattern or structure.

*Couplet:A pair of lines usually rhymed.This is the shortest stanza.

*Heroic Couplet:A pair of rhymed lines in iambic pentameter.

*Quatrain:A four-line stanza or a grouping of four lines of verse.

X)Fixed Form:A poem which follows a set pattern of meter,rhyme scheme,stanza form and refrain is called a fixed form.

Types of Fixed Form:
*Ballad:A narrative poem written as a series of quatrainsin which lines of iambic tetrameter alternate with iambic trimeter with frequent use of repetition and often including a refrain.

*Balladรจ:A French form consisting of three,seven or eight line stanzas using no more than three recurrent rhymes with an identical refrain after each stanza.

*Concrete Poetry:Also called as pattern poetry or shaped verse,these are poems that are printed on the page so that they form a recognisable outline related to the subject.

*Epigram:A pithy,sometimes satiric,couplet or quatrain comprising a single thought or event and often aphoristic with a witty or humourous turn of thought.

*Epitaph:A brief poem or statement in memory of someone who is deceased.

*Haiku:A Japanese form of poetry where the piece of writing only consists of three unrhymed poems of five,seven and five syllables.

*Limerick:A light or humourous form of five chiefly anapestic verses of which lines one,two and five are of three feet and lines three and four are of two feet with a rhyme scheme of 'aabba'.

*Lyric:A form of poetry originally intended to be sung.It includes all poems in which the speaker's ardent expression of an emotional element predominates.

*Ode:A form of poetry which is very complex with intricate rhyme scheme as and irregular number of lines.It is generally large in size.

*Pantoum:Derived from the Malayan word 'pantun',it consists of a varying number of four line stanzas with lines rhyming alternately.

*Rondeau:A fixed form used mostly in light or witty verse usually consisting of fifteen desyllabic lines in 3 stanzas.

*Sestina:A fixed form consisting of 6-line,usually unrhymed,stanzas in which the end words of the first stanza recur as end words of following five stanzas.

*Sonnet:A form of poetry having fourteen lines and its subject was traditionally love.

*Shakespearean Sonnet:A style of sonnet used by Shakespeare with a rhyme scheme of 'abab
cdcd efef gg'.
*Italian/Petrarchan Sonnet:A form of sonnet made popular by Petrarch with a rhyme scheme of 'abbaabba cdecde or cdcdcd'.

*Spensarian Sonnet:A variant of the Shakespearean sonnet in which the quatrains are linked with a chain.

*Sonnet Sequence:A series of sonnets in which there is a discernable unifying theme while each realtains its structural independence.

*Triolet:A poem or stanza of eight lines in which the first line repeated as the fourth and seventh lines and second line as the eighth,with a rhyme scheme of 'ABaAabAB'.

*Villanelle:A poem consisting of five 3-line stanzas followed by a quatrain and having only two rhymes.

•#IMAGES of words:
A poet uses words consciously than any other person.Although poetry often deals with deep human emotions,people generally don't respond very strongly to abstract words.Hence,the poet tries to embed his work with words having strong visual and sensory impact on readers' mind.These words must be picked with caution by the writer.

I)Imagery:The use of vivid language to generate ideas and evoke mental images not only of visual sense but of sensation and emotion as well.

II)Synesthesia:An attempt to fuse different senses by describing one kind of sense impression in words.

III)Tone/Mood:The means by which a poet reveals attitude and feelings,in the style of language or expression of thought used to develop the subject.

No part of this publication may be reproduced,stored in a retrieval system of transmitted,in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical,photocopying,recording or otherwise without the prior permission of the publisher.

#Hey!This is an in-depth piece of genuine writing by EduRankers' team.There may be some inadvertent typing mistakes.Please report and we will definitely get back to you.Ask your queries in the comments section.Keep hustling!





  1. Do we need to learn all of them? I am in 10th class.

  2. No you need not learn all of them.A handful of the
    can help you in your studies.However,from knowledge perspective you can learn so that you can have better understanding of poems and literature.


Thank you for reading the blog.You can always visit us for educational content.

A Roadside Stand; NCERT Solutions and Summary for Class 12

                            A Roadside Stand                                                        - Robert Frost Text: ...