Saturday, July 31, 2021

Discovering Tut:the Saga Continues; NCERT Solutions and Summary for Class 11

           Discovering Tut:the Saga Continues
                                                 -A.R. Williams

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"Discovering Tut:the Saga Continues" by A.R. Williams is a documentary which gives us an in-depth insight into Tutankhamun's life and the discovery of his mummy.

He was a teenager when he died and the reason behind has always been a mystery.He was the last heir of a powerful family that had ruled Egypt and its empire for centuries.The Pharoah and his family were quite interesting too.Tut's father or grandfather,Amenhotep III,was a very powerful ruler ruling for around 40 years.His son,Amenhotep IV,succeeded him and initiated one of the strangest eras in the history of Egypt.He promoted the worship of Aten,changed his name to Akhenaten,moved the religious capital from Thebes to present-day Amarna.He also attacked a God named Amun,devasted his temples and images.Another ruler named Smenkhare succeeded him but was only in the throne for a brief period.After that,Tuthankhamun had been crowned the Pharoah.He ruled for nine years and his fame was spread till far-flung places.

His body was mummified and was laid down.His mummy was finally discovered in 1922,after around 3200 years later.Howard Carter,a British archaeologist,had discovered the tomb.Carter had found the mummy after around 9 years of thorough searching.

He was pretty astonished to see all the treasures along with the coffin.The coffin was laden with loads of gold,inlaid bracelets,amulets as well as other valuables.It also had various things of everyday usage such as bronze razor,games,clothes,cases of food and wine.After researching on the treasures,he decided to investigate his 3 nested coffins.Finally,when he found the mummy,he ran into trouble.The ritual resins had hardened and cemented Tut to the bottom of the solid gold tomb.It was almost to move the mass.He tried to loosen these by putting the coffin in open Sun however in vain.They had to remove the resins with the help of chisel and hammer to separate the mummy from the adornments.Carter felt they didn't have any other choice as to if he had not cut the muumy,thieves would have looted the gold.They cut the mummy from limb to limb.They removed its head and nearly every major joint.They resembled the remains on a layer of sand in a wooden box with padding which hid the damage,where Tut now rests.

In 1968,the mummy was X-rayed by an anatomy professor who revealed that his breast bones and front ribs were missing.Later,on 5th of January on 2005,Tut was taken from his tomb for a CT scan.This test takes hundreds of X-rays and creates a 3D image.The night of the scan was a stormy one.Zahi Hawass,Secretary General of Egypt's Supreme council of Antiquities,observed that the mummy was in a bad condition.The CT scan was carried out to prove the mysteries around Tut and his death. The city scan went without any  major problems everybody was relieved.

Difficult Words:
2)Tomb:An enclosure to bury the dead.
3)Forensic Construction:The process of                                                                    recreating the face of                                                        an individual.
4)Pharoah:A ruler in ancient Egypt.
5)Scudded Across:Moving quickly.
6)Casket:A small ornamental box to store                            valuables.
7)Probe:To investigate.
9)Glided:Covered thinly with gold.
10)Murals:Any piece of art painted or applied on                     wall.
11)Antiquities:An object, building, or work of art                           from the ancient past.
12)Resurrection:A concept of coming back to                                   life.
13)Circumvented:Overcome something in a                                         clever way.
14)Amulets:An object meant to confer                                       protection upon its possessor.
15)Computed Tomography:A process by which                                                    a 3D image is                                                              formulated.
16)Wacky:Funny or amusing in a peculiar or                            crazy way.
17)Eerie Detail(Here):Strange image of Tut's  
18)Radiology:Science dealing with X-rays and                              other high energy radiations.
19)Pallbearers:A person helping to carry a                                      coffin.
20)Constellation:A group of stars forming a                                        recognisable pattern.

About Author:
A.R. Williams,born on April,1988, is an award-winning writer,reporter,editor with experience in archaeology as well as cultural heritage. He is a news writer and editor specialising in archaeology and volcanoes.He is  based in Washington D.C.

NCERT Questions:
A)Understanding the Text

1)i)The mummy of King Tutankhamun and always attracted attention from all around the globe for the riches it was buried with. There were also very respect relation about the manner of his death and his age at the time of death. Hence,the Pharoah's dead body has been subjected to repeated scrutiny.

ii)Howard's investigation was resented because he excavated the mummy using unorganised ways. He eventually severed the body of the Pharaoh and used unscientific ways to carry out the research. He was also accused of focusing more on the pressure rather than the cultural and historical aspects of the Pharaoh.

iii)When Carter found that the resins used for each ritualistic reasons had hardened and cemented Tut's body to the bottom of the coffin use,he tried to loosen the  coffin by putting it on the blazing Sun. However, the sun could not loosen the resins.They were forced to chisel the resins and get the young king's remnants.

iv)The people in ancient Egypt believed in the resurrection of the dead. Their kings were extremely rich.They were buried with their treasures so that the Pharoah could use them after their resurrection.

v)Tutankhamun means "Living image of Amun" in Egyptian language. He was a major God in ancient Egyptian culture. His predecessor had smashed everything related to God "Amun". However,Tut oversaw a restoration of the old ways. He changed his name to express his believe in "Amun".

2)i)Ray Johnson,director of a centre in Luxor, described "Akhenaten"as a little wacky because of his deeds. He changed his name from Amenhotep to Akhenaten to express his belief for the Egyptian God "Aten". He moved the religious capital from the old city of Thebes to present day in Amarna. He devastated everything associated with Egypt God "Amun" and closed his temples.

ii)The results of the CT scan with quite interesting.Using the  CT scan, around 1700 digital X-Ray images in cross section were created which helped in formulating a 3D-image of Tuthankhamun.

iii) technology has evolved rapidly over the years. Advancements in technology have helped in improving forensic analysis significantly. Various scientific tests have been discovered and improvised which can give us a great deal of evidence.These include X-ray,Ultrasound,CT scan, Postmortem,Autopsy et cetera.All these provide accurate details throwing light on certain facts.

iv)King Tut's mummy was the first one to be extracted by an anatomy professor in 1968.On January 5,2005,a CT scan was carried on his mummy helping at your archaeologists to create a 3D image of his body.Thus,in death as well as in life,Tut moved regally ahead of his countrymen.

B)Talking about the Text

1)For the motion:
Every nation glorifies its golden past,culture and civilization.Certain mysteries lie buried with them. Scientific invention can help in underlying these mysteries as well as some tokens of history. For example,in case of Tutankhamun archaeological science has helped in clearing the dust and cloud surrounding various myths regarding him.

Against the motion:
Scientific invention can also cause damage to buried mysteries and the tokens of the past. In order to extract information,they can sometimes even cause irreparable loss to those valuable tokens.In this case, Howard Carter who discovered the Mummy severed the Mummy into several parts to examine it.

2)For the motion:
Advanced technology alone can help us to get accurate facts about the past.There are many events in history surrounded by myths.Myths and legends surround even the most celebrated personalities in history.People have given coloured versions of the past to suit the demands of other people.Hence,we get wrapped versions of past events.Only advanced technology can give us the right perspective about those events.

Against the motion:
Advanced technology gives us conclusive evidence about the past but it holds good in certain cases only. It is unfair to generalise and hold it true for all cases. Sometimes, processing the available data may yield contradictory accounts and create more confusion than unraveling the knotted issues. Sometimes, the provided date me fall in sufficient to get a proper analysis and examination.The tests may successfully determine the time period of the action but it is quite difficult to assess the causes that prompted it are the repercussions which followed it.

3)For the motion:
Different religions,cultures,civilization follow various traditions rituals and funerary practices.Ancient Egyptians had mastered the art of mummifying dead bodies and believed in resurrection.Certain traditional practices were followed during burying a dead person. Ritualistic resins were applied around the mummy. The burial chamber and grave content things of daily usage. The funerary practices held is certain sanctity for the followers of a particular religion or faith.

Against the motion:
The world is on the move. We must look forward and must not rely on our past achievements or laurels. If tradition,culture and rituals block the flow of information and knowledge,these things should be overlooked for the greater benefit of humanity. We should conduct our probe more objectively and dispassionately so that facts have more weightage then the beliefs attached to them. A detached look can provide us with clear understanding of past events.

4)For the motion:
Modern world has expanded the frontiers of knowledge.Due to modernization,the world has transformed into a global village. Information technology has brought a revolution in the field of knowledge.However,our knowledge of past events and tradition is also equally vital.We must thoroughly study the past to aware ourselves of the mistakes our forefathers did so that we don't repeat them.The structure of the future is rooted in the past.The lives of the people from the past act as beacons which can help in enlightening our ways.

Against the motion:
We are constantly learning new things about the world we are living in. The knowledge of present times is far more essential than the knowledge of our past events. Old rituals,tools,ways of conduct and ethos are not going to help us in our struggle for existence in this highly competitive world. The knowledge of the world we need is also restricted to our requirements and we need not bother about knowledge about the past lives.

C)Thinking about language.

1)A language becomes extinct when its usage is restricted to a small class or category of people. The harshness of rules and lack of flexibility in usage also contributes to the extinction of language.

2)It is definitely important to preserve languages.Languages are the vehicles of thought and medium of interaction between the users of that language and the outside world. A  language has intimate connection with the lives, culture and civilization of the people and reflects their thinking.

3)Certain steps must be taken to help prevent the extinction of languages and dialect.We must encourage its usage.A language thrives as long as it is used by the masses.Measures should be taken to propagate the usage of a language. Interpreters and translators may also be provided for the interaction between native users and non-users.Certain incentives in the form of stipends,scholarships or preference in jobs may prove to be effective in attracting the youth towards languages and dialects. State patronage can also help in the preservation of languages.

No part of this publication may be reproduced,stored in a retrieval system of transmitted,in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical,photocopying,recording or otherwise without the prior permission of the publisher.

#Hey!This is an in-depth piece of genuine writing by EduRankers' team.There may be some inadvertent typing mistakes.Please report and we will definitely get back to you.Ask your queries in the comments section.Keep hustling!



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